Presentation on theme: "Lesson 08/09/2015. Last week We introduced sociology Explained the concept of culture- Values, Norms, roles etc Looked briefly at some research This week."— Presentation transcript:
Last week We introduced sociology Explained the concept of culture- Values, Norms, roles etc Looked briefly at some research This week introducing Unit 1
Unit 1 Perspectives in Sociology 1.1- compare and contrast three perspectives in Sociology Relate to education
The Perspectives Functionalism Marxism Interactionism
What we are doing today first half - Looking at Functionalism second half- finishing off/ 20/30 minutes research and writing notes
Structural theories( C/1.1) Functionalism Marxism Both are structural theories – therefore can be compared in the assignment!!!!
Abit about structural theories Society as a whole system made up of smaller parts Consensus or conflict based There is no individual- Just roles These roles are taught through socialisation – primary and secondary For example- Surgeon is expected to complete all the jobs associated with that role But any surgeon would have to- therefore the individual could be anyone! Social mechanisms such as expectations keep people operating within their role. -Answering the phone at a call centre- you answer politely, because you are expected to, as this is part of your role.
Getting you thinking- Functionalism Task 1- answer yes or not to the following questions is it agreed that owning your own home is a sign of success? Doing well in school will help you to become successful? People on benefits are those people who didn’t try hard enough in school? If you work hard then you will be supported and you will succeed?
Conclusion of task Functionalism will have us believe that we agree to the order of society. That the rich are rich because they work hard. We aspire to be like them. Inequalities are fair- as they promote people to work hard. People can change their situation be stopping being lazy and work hard for their money… This is because we live in an achieved society : meaning anything can be achieved through your own merits – hence Meritocracy…
Therefore society works in Consensus Means the implied agreement amongst society and everyone living in it about how we should be and behave We all honour the same values (value consensus) For example, jobs with more training are paid more- we agree to this.. Don’t we? Also means we can predict how others will act This consensus is reinforced through the process of socialisation – parents, schools, religion etc Socialisation – the process by which we are integrated into the values, norms, and roles of a culture
Recap: functionalism All parts of society are functional and integrated Society can only be studied has a whole and not in isolation compared to the human body Therefore society more important than the individual Functionalists believe that society is held together by social consensus, in which members of the society agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole. This leads to order Without this, it leads to uncertainty about others behaviour= chaos and anarchy
Example and task For example, the government, or state, provides education for the children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the state depends to keep itself running. The family is dependent upon the school to help children grow up to have good jobs so that they can raise and support their own families. In the process, the children become law-abiding, taxpaying citizens, who in turn support the state. If all goes well, the parts of society produce order, stability, and productivity. If all does not go well, the parts of society then must adapt to recapture a new order, stability, and productivity.
Durkheim Therefore Society is harmonious – social solidarity sense of community Rules of Sociological method (1964) Crime has a contribution Without crime = no innovation to change or introduce new laws = thus new consensus of behaviour Reinforces commitment to values – “ that’s really bad what he did, its evil I wouldn’t do that….
Talcott Parsons (1902- 79) Socialisation is key to understanding behaviour patterns Roles of – family, education, media, ensures the passing on and reproduction of socially acceptable patterns of behaviour. People taught core values and then internalise them –they then become ‘ taken for granted’. This leads to social order Social order- shared and stable patterns of behaviour – everything ordered!
Values and norms take on a sacred quality- moral codes- religion and the law- Marriage Encourages Social Solidarity – Sense of community Social Integration- Sense of belonging Which in turn encourages conformity Thus, behaviour controlled by rules of society- probably feel inhibited if we deviate!
Functionalism and education How do you think functionalist would view education?
Durkheim - Social Solidarity Socialising new people into society thus promoting solidarity What ways is solidarity promoted in school?
Parsons- promotes meritocracy people learn the value (consensus) of meritocracy though school- being they can achieve and become anything if they work hard enough How do schools do this?
Davies and Moore (1945)- Allocation, also inequality is important for society as it sifts and sorts D avis and Moore (1945) argue that the education system matches students to the jobs in which they are best suited on a basis of their talent and ability. This allocation means that qualification are rewarded to the most academically talented students, which in turn leads them to the most functionally important jobs with the highest rewards. They also produce an advanced labour force How do school sifts people?