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1 SIGN UP FOR TUTORIALS Please go to this website:
Tutorial attendance is compulsory

2 Education Consider ‘macro’ or structuralist approaches Today:
- Background - Functionalist Theories Critical views re Hidden Curriculum Tomorrow: - Bernstein, Bourdieu

3 Structuralist Approaches
Last term – more on individuals/groups Now – more structural - institutions, power relations, inequalities etc E.g. – consider – on education: functions/roles of schools, Unis power relations – who shapes educational institutions? Who gains from them?

4 Historical Background
Education in Britain: Compulsory since 1870s/1880 Leaving age up from 10 to 16 Mass higher/further education – 2000 – Scotland: 32% in universities, 19% in colleges

5 Continuing Inequalities
Fee-paying schools keep advantages 70% rich kids enter University; under 10% in poorest areas Ethnic minorities – schools fail young black males Females – higher grades, but career inequalities

6 Functionalists - Durkheim
Education promotes social solidarity, social system ED - French, early 20thC Education: - promotes group commitment learn rules, procedures teaches special skills for complex, industrial society

7 Functionalists - Parsons
1950s, US sociologist Education socialises children Schools are: Universalistic Pro achievement Meritocratic And enable ‘role allocation’ Different rewards seen as fair Education promotes democracy, modernisation

8 Criticisms Schools don’t transmit shared norms, solidarity?
Power issues: Who gains? Dominant classes? Schools not meritocratic or pro-achievement? Need more critical focus on inequalities

9 Illich ‘Hidden Curriculum’ Schools:
- teach key values, promote social order BUT: promote passivity, conformity produce obedient consumers public lack influence over what is taught Pro ‘deschooling’, ‘learning webs’

10 Bowles & Gintis US Marxists
‘Correspondence Principle’ (education and work are similar worlds) ‘Hidden curriculum’ produces: Obedient workers Accept hierarchies External rewards as normal Fragmented subjects – world makes little sense

11 Bowles & Gintis Schools legitimise inequality
Pupil results: Class/family more influential than IQ Criticisms? Employers don’t control schooling? Formal curriculum? Children not passive (Willis)? Potent critique of inequalities

12 Gender Girls long excluded from higher education
Post-war – greater participation But ‘hidden curriculum’ - gender-role expectations – e.g. boys in science Recent studies: girls ‘out-perform’ boys But – differences remain - glass ceiling e.g. Unis and female pay!

13 Summary Consider structural aspects of education
Functionalists: benefits social system Illich: many negative effects, notably passivity Bowles/Gintis: sustains exploitative system Gender: school and gender inequalities

14 SIGN UP FOR TUTORIALS Please go to this website:
Tutorial attendance is compulsory End of this class – I need 7-8 class reps. Please volunteer and come to the front at end of lecture

15 Education - Inequalities
Structuralist theories of Education: Bernstein Bourdieu Educational inequalities rooted in class divisions

16 Bernstein Class differences linked to language
Two ‘speech patterns’/Codes: Elaborated - Restricted Middle-class - Working-class Codes linked to classes and educational success

17 Bernstein Elaborated codes – universalistic Meanings explicit
Longer, complex sentences Context free Restricted codes – particularistic Meanings implicit Fewer words, simpler sentences Context bound – situational, know other speakers

18 Bernstein Middle classes: elaborated codes need in work e.g. sales
person-centred relationships in family Working classes: restricted codes positional relationships in family

19 Bernstein Education: Emphasises elaborated codes for success
Suits middle-class children Working-class kids learn elaborated codes, not as familiar for them They need to change how see world to succeed in school Overall – BB ties education to class/language

20 Bourdieu Critiqued reproduction of class divisions through education
Key concept – ‘Cultural Capital’ varied forms e.g. educational certificates, knowledge of arts and world, cultural ‘tastes’, etc. cultural resources dividing groups can use for economic gain helps success in work, social life

21 Bourdieu Dominant classes claim more cultural capital
Lower classes have less experience, ‘out of place’ Children of dominant classes enter school with CC, where CC is appreciated

22 Bourdieu Dominant classes set educational standards
Schools emphasise symbolic (e.g. talking) not practical (making) – favours dominant As move up educationally - pupils from dominated classes eased out Dominant classes – their children claim ‘better ability’

23 Bourdieu Inequalities seem fair – education is ‘open’, ‘free’
Lower-class children – failure is ‘their fault’ Some succeed, promoting ‘fairness’ illusion Recent times: Mass education: Lower-class dilemma: Gain devalued certificates OR Stay outside and ‘fail’

24 Critical Views Bernstein/Bourdieu: - Crude division of classes?
Bernstein exaggerates limited speech of working classes? Bourdieu ignores lower class advances? Offers no scope for change? BUT: overall – structuralist accounts explain continuing inequalities, strong fit re theory and evidence

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