Presentation on theme: "Classical Sociological Perspectives of Education Sept 18 th, 2006."— Presentation transcript:
Classical Sociological Perspectives of Education Sept 18 th, 2006
What is Education? Education is the social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural vales within a formally organized structure
Cultural Transmission The process by which children and recent immigrants become acquainted with the dominant cultural beliefs, values, norms and accumulated knowledge of a society – occurs through informal and formal education.
Informal education learning that occurs in a spontaneous, unplanned way.
Formal Education Learning that takes place within an academic setting such as a school, which has a planned instructional process and teachers who convey specific knowledge, skills and thinking process to students
Theories of Education Functionalist Conflict Interactionist
Functionalism Dewy Parsons Durkheim Education is responsible for developing moral or normative consensus, which is at the centre of social integration and pattern maintenance.
Meritocracy A form of social system in which power goes to those with superior intellects - the belief that rulers should be chosen for their superior abilities and not because of their wealth or birth
Functions of School System –to teach the values of achievement, universalistic standards of judgment, and emotional neutrality appropriate for specialized occupations –to train in specific skills and knowledge appropriate for occupational roles –to ensure the appropriate selection and allocation of young adults to occupational roles in accordance with merit, as measured by universal standards of achievements –to legitimate inequalities in material rewards in democratic society through principles of merit established in the school grading system –to develop stable social relations with age peers outside the family –to inculcate appropriate sex-roles identification
Schools Instill a) The value of achievement - by rewarding those who achieve through exam success. b) The value of equality of opportunity - by offering everyone an equal chance to succeed.
Emile Durkheim..main function of education is the transmission of society's norms and values in three mains areas: 1. SOCIAL SOLIDARITY - For example the teaching of history provides social continuity. 2. SOCIAL RULES - At school we learn to co-operate with strangers and to be self-disciplined. 3. DIVISION OF LABOUR - Education teaches individual skills necessary for future occupations. This is a most important function in advanced industrial society with its complex division of labour.
Schools transmit a) General Values necessary for homogeneity b) Specific skills provide necessary diversity for social co- operation as people need to work together to produce goods.
Manifest Functions of Education –Socialization –Transmission of culture –Social Control –Social placement –Change and innovations
Latent Functions of Education –Restricting some activities –Matchmaking and production of social networks –Creation of a Generation Gap
Conflict Perspective on Education From a conflict perspective, education is used to perpetuate class, racial-ethnic, and gender inequalities through tracking, ability grouping and a hidden curriculum that teaches subordinate groups conformity and obedience.
Conflict theorists argue that access to quality education is closely related to social class. education is a vehicle for reproducing existing class relationships.
Pierre Bourdieu argues that the educational system uphold patterns of behaviour and attitudes of the dominant class. argues that students from diverse backgrounds come to school with different amounts of Cultural Capital – social assets that include values, beliefs, attitudes and competencies in language and culture.
Hidden Curriculum is the transmission of cultural values and attitudes, such as conformity and obedience to authority, through implied demands found in rules, routines and regulations in schools.
Marxism For Karl Marx, education performs two main functions in capitalist society: 1. It reproduces the inequalities and social relations of production of Capitalist Society. 2. It serves to legitimate these inequalities under the guise of Meritocracy.
Interactionist Perspective on Education Interactionists focus on classroom communication patterns and educational practices such as labeling that affect students’ self- concept and aspirations
Interactionist Labeling is the process whereby a person is identified by others as possessing a specific characteristic or exhibiting a certain pattern of behaviour (such as being deviant).
Interactionist Self-fulfilling Prophecy – defined as an unsubstantiated belief or prediction resulting in behaviour that makes the originally false beliefs come true. Typing refers to how teachers 'type' or categorize pupils as 'bright' or 'troublesome', 'good' or 'bad' etc.