2 Essential Questions What roles does the President play? Which role is the most important?How much power does the President really have?What is the President’s role in the separation of powers?How do the executive departments and agencies help society?
3 Roles of the PresidentThe President is the head of the executive branch.Executive Branch: the branch of government responsible for executing, or carrying out, the law.The President also sets goals for the nation and develops policies.
4 How The Presidency Began Ways to limit the powers of the President:Limit to the # of terms in officePresident CANNOT make lawsCongress approves many presidential decisionsCongress can remove a President from officeSupreme Court decides if Presidents’ actions are constitutionalQualifications and Salary:Must be at least 35 years oldNatural-born citizen of the United StatesMust live in the U.S. for at least 14 yearsYearly salary is set by Congress
5 Leadership Roles Chief Executive Head of the executive branch Execute laws (decide how they are carried out)Makes broad decisions – leaves details to other officials through executive ordersExecutive orders: rules and regulations that government must followPower to appoint 4,000 executive branch officialsCongress must approve many top appointments
6 Leadership Roles Commander in Chief: Head of the armed forces Makes the MOST IMPORTANT military decisionsOften listens to advisers for less important military decisionsAble to send troops to foreign countries for a short period of time without Congress declaring war.
7 Leadership Roles Chief Diplomat: Most important representative of the U.S. in international relationsForeign Policy: the set of plans for guiding our nation’s relationships with other countriesPowers are not really limitedAmbassador: the official representatives to foreign governmentsPresident appoints ambassadors, Congress approves themExecutive Agreements: agreements with other countries that do not need Senate approvalSet goals for trade, or make promises to give aid to other countries
8 Leadership Roles Legislative Leader Influences what laws should be and how they should be enforced.Congress is expected to consider the Presidents ideas.State of the Union Address outlines foreign and domestic policyDomestic Policy: a set of plans for dealing with national problemsPresident can call meetings with members of Congress to support his programs.President can influence congress through the power of the veto (Why is this important?)Congress has only overridden 4% of 2,500 vetoes.President outlines how money is to be raised and spent for his programs.
9 Leadership Roles Judicial Powers: President appoints Judges to the Supreme Court, but Senate has to confirm them.President canput off or reduce punishment of someone convicted of a crime in federal courtdo away with a punishment through granting a pardon or release someone from current punishment.
10 Roles created through Tradition Head of Political Party:Leaders of the Political Party they representHelps to advance the party by raising money and speaking at public functionsChief of State:Expresses the values and goals of the American peopleCeremonial duties such as greeting visiting foreign leadersStands for national unity and as a symbol of the United States
11 Organizing the Executive Branch Bureaucracy: an organization of government departments, agencies, and officesHired as permanent employees, not just for one PresidentAdministration: team of executive branch officialsCabinet: group of policy advisers to the President
12 Organizing the Executive Branch White House StaffMost trusted advisers and assistantsGive advice about national security, economy, etc.Includes the Chief of Staff, key advisers, secretaries, legal experts, speechwriters, office workers, and researchersAppointed by the President without Senate approvalVice PresidentPresides over Senate under the ConstitutionPresident decides how active VP isSpecial Advisory GroupsDeals with special issues, domestic and foreignOffice of Management and Budget (OMB)National Security Council (NSC)
13 Executive Departments Currently 15 executive departmentsForm the largest part of the executive branchEach department helps to fulfill one or more of the President’s duties.
14 Independent Agencies Executive Agencies: Regulatory Commissions: Under direct control of the President (can remove directors at any time)Most important groups:National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)Regulatory Commissions:Carries out rules for certain business or economic activity.Federal Communications Commission (FCC) – rules for radio and televisionConsumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) – safety standards for products found around the house
15 Independent Agencies Government Corporations: Civil Services: Provides public services that are too risky or expensive for private businesses to undertake.EX: U.S. Postal ServiceCivil Services:Government workers (civil servants) are hired based on merit (tests)President chooses fewer than 1% of workers in the executive branch
16 Presidents and Power Treaties: formal agreements between nations The President does not need Senate approval to meet with leaders of foreign countriesThe Senate has the power to reject treaties, but usually follow what the President sees as necessaryExecutive Privilege: the right to keep some information secret from Congress and the courtsUsually for reasons of national security (safety)
17 Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase Jefferson had the opportunity to buy the Louisiana Territory for $15 million from France (Napoleon)This purchase would double the size of the U.S.He didn’t know what to do because the Constitution didn’t say that the President had the power to buy territoryJefferson consulted his advisors (including Secretary of State James Madison)He decided to accept Napoleon’s offerThe Senate ratified the treaty and Congress agreed to pay France for the territory
18 Truman and the Steel Mills In 1952 during the Korean WarSteelworkers said they wouldn’t work unless their demands were metTruman placed the Secretary of Commerce in control of the Steel MillsSteel companies said the President has no right to take over private propertyTruman said he acted in the best interest of American soldiers who were fighting in warSupreme Court said that the President had no right to take private property even in the event of a national emergency