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Chapter 8 Presidential Leadership

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1 Chapter 8 Presidential Leadership

2 Section 1: Presidential Powers

3 Forming Presidential Powers
Many presidential powers have developed over time and are not in the Constitution Defining factors of shaping the office of presidency in its modern form: The Constitution Influence and personal charisma of the president The mandate  expressed will of the people

4 List of Presidential Powers
Commander in chief of armed forces Appoints the head of executive departments (Cabinet) Conducts foreign policy (treaties/appoint ambassadors) Appoint federal court judges Pardon people convicted of federal crimes (except impeachment or reduction of jail time or fine) Enforce the laws Gives an annual State of the Union address Call Congress into special session, if necessary

5 Informal Sources of Power
Jefferson  purchased land for the country T. Roosevelt  said “do anything that the needs of the nation demanded…” Abraham Lincoln  Suspended the writ of habeas corpus Raised an army without approval Blockaded the ports in the South illegally F.D. Roosevelt  set up many federal programs

6 Mandate of the People Mandate: strong popular support
A source of power for the president Many presidents used the media to gain mandate from the country

7 Limits on Presidential Power
Bureaucracy can: Hinder president’s programs by: failing to give information needed misinterpreting instructions not completing a task properly Public opinion can: Keep a president from attempting to run for re-election Condemn a presidential action Congress can: override a president’s veto impeach the president grant money confirm presidential nominations Federal courts can: Review legislative actions that the president supports


The president is BOTH the head of state and chief executive Presides over ceremonies Carries out the laws How are they carried out? Executive orders Presidential appointments Right to remove officials that they have appointed Impoundment – refuse to spend money Congress has given an agency or department Reprieve – postponement of legal punishment Pardon – release from legal punishment Amnesty – a group pardon to people for an offense against the gov’t

10 CHIEF LEGISLATOR Proposes legislation he/she wishes to see enacted
Outlines his/her legislative program in the annual State of the Union address His/her staff writes the legislation for Congress He/she must work with members of both political parties to pass his/her legislation He/she has the power to veto bills

11 ECONOMIC PLANNER Submits an annual economic report to Congress
Prepares the federal budget each year

12 PARTY LEADER Helps members of his/her political party who seek offices (mayor, governor, senator, representative) Raise funds Give speeches Give endorsements

13 CHIEF DIPLOMAT Make treaties and sign
Make executive agreements with other countries Same legal status as treaties, but do not need the Senate’s approval Recognizes the governments of foreign countries

14 COMMANDER IN CHIEF Power to order a military action
Must get Congress’ approval to declare war Makes important military decisions

15 Section 3: Styles of Leadership

16 Styles of Leadership Some presidents choose to get involved in the details of their administration (President Jimmy Carter) While others delegate the detail work to the EOP and the White House staff (President Ronald Reagan).

17 Leadership Qualities & Skills
Understanding the public Ability to communicate effectively Sense of timing Openness to New Ideas Ability to Compromise Have political courage

18 Presidential Isolation
The President’s world (White House) is constructed to meet his needs and to support his views. Staff members are discouraged to disagree with the President. Only a few (top advisors, staff members) are allowed access to the President. Information may be screened by top advisors before it reaches the president. It is difficult for the President to stay in touch with the public.

19 The Use of Executive Privilege:
Executive privilege: the right of the president and other high-ranking executive officers, with the president’s consent, to refuse to provide information to Congress or a court This is based on the principle of SEPARATION OF POWERS as outlined in the Constitution The extent of the President’s use of executive privilege remains controversial

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