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The Presidency The President’s Roles

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1 The Presidency The President’s Roles
Chief of State – ceremonial head of government, the symbol of the nation’s people Chief Executive – given the power to execute all laws Chief Administrator – the director of the Federal Government Chief Diplomat – nation’s chief spokesperson and architect of foreign policy Commander in Chief – Leader of the nation’s armed forces Chief Legislator – main architect of the nation’s public policy Chief of Party – leader of his or her political party Chief Citizen – the representative of all the people

2 Formal Qualifications
Must be a natural-born citizen (born on U.S. soil) Must be at least 35 years old Must have lived in the U.S. for at least 14 years

3 The President’s Term The 22nd Amendment to the Constitution states that no person may be elected President more than twice. Prior to this, there was no limit. FDR was elected President four times.

4 The Constitution and Succession
The 25th Amendment to the Constitution states that if a President is removed from office, dies while in office, or resigns from office, the Vice President will become President Presidential Succession Act of 1947 – fixed the order of succession after the VP. Speaker of the House, President pro tempore of the Senate, Secretary of State, then the other 13 heads of the Cabinet departments in the order, in which they were created.

5 The Vice Presidency The Vice President only has two formal duties according to the Constitution. Preside over the Senate, and break ties. Help decide the question of presidential disability

6 Electoral College The group of electors chosen from each state and Washington D.C. to formally select the President and Vice President. The President is not directly elected by the people, but rather by the states, with the opinion of the people. 12th Amendment – Changed the way the Vice President was selected. The President and Vice President now run together, instead of giving the VP to the election’s runner-up

7 Presidential Power Imperial presidency – term used to describe a President as an “emperor” who acts without consulting Congress or acts in secrecy to evade or deceive Congress. Negative criticism about the Presidents ability to take as much power as he wants.

8 President’s Executive Powers
4 Major Powers of the President Power to Execute the Law – the power to enforce, administer, and carry out the law Ordinance Power (executive orders) – the power to issue directives, rules, or regulations that have the effect of law Appointment Power – the power to select individuals who will help in the administration of government Removal Power – the power to removal appointed officials from office

9 Diplomatic and Military Powers
Executive Agreement – a pact between the President and the head of a foreign state. Much like a treaty, but this does not have to be approved by the Senate. The Power of Recognition When the President recognizes a country, he recognizes that country’s legal existence, and the two countries will exchange diplomatic representatives.

10 Commander in Chief As Commander in Chief, the President may send troops into battle without a declaration of war from Congress. According to the War Powers Act, the President must notify Congress within 48 hours. Troops may stay in combat for no more than 60 days, unless Congress approves continued action.

11 Legislative Powers Recommending Legislation – using the “Bully Pulpit,” the President uses his influence to suggest areas in which Congress should focus Veto Power – The President may veto bills he does not agree with Can call Congress to special session May adjourn Congress(Prorogue) when the two houses cannot agree on a date to end the session.

12 Judicial Powers Reprieve – the postponement of a sentence given by a court Pardon – legal forgiveness of a crime Clemency – mercy of leniency granted to an offender in federal crimes only Commutation – the power to reduce the length of a sentence or fine for a crime Amnesty – A blanket pardon offered to a group of law violators.

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