Presentation on theme: "Explorations of Scottish doctor Stanley Livingston & British journalist, Henry M. Stanley spur Europe to claim parts of Africa. European countries partition."— Presentation transcript:
1 World History/Cultures Chapter 16- Age of Imperialism Section 2- Partition of Africa
2 Explorations of Scottish doctor Stanley Livingston & British journalist, Henry M. Stanley spur Europe to claim parts of Africa.European countries partition or divide Africa.1914: 90% of African continent controlled by European nations.
3 North AfricaSahara Desert- Atlantic Ocean to Red Sea. North Africans lived North of Sahara on fertile land.1800s- Muslim Arabs governed Tripoli, Tunis & Algiers. Present-day Libya, Tunisia & Algeria.
4 French in North Africa1830: King Charles X of France invaded Algiers to colonize country.Algerian leader Abd-al-Qadir resisted French.1840: French troops conquered Algiers French conquered Tunis French secure special rights in Morocco. 1 million French settled in North Africa.
5 Britain & EgyptEarly 1800s- Egypt under governor Muhammad Ali. Reformed tax & land systems, encouraged industry & irrigation. Debts rose.1859- French entrepreneur, Ferdinand de Lesseps, set up company to build Suez Canal. Important- shortened route between Europe & Asia & valued by British as link to India.1875: Great Britain controls Suez Canal as Egypt sold canal shares to pay debts.
6 Britain & Egypt con’t1882: Egypt stops revolt by nationalist leader Ahmad Arabi. Egypt became a British protectorate.Sudan: Muslim revival stirred nationalist feelings & challenge British expansion British defeat Sudanese army at Battle of Omdurman.British confront French at Fashoda in Sudan. French withdrew when British recognize French control of Morocco.
7 Italy Seizes Libya1800s known as Tripoli & Italy wanted it as nearest European nation.1911: Italy declared war on Ottoman Empire which controlled Tripoli. Italy victorious, took Tripoli as a colony & rename it Libya.
8 West Africas: West Africans engaged in slave trade with Europeans.Early 1800s: Western nations abolish slavery. Practice continued- slaves sent to Middle East & Asia.Population of West Africa weakened by slave trade. Trade natural products for manufactured goods.Late 1800s: Europeans control trade & move inland.
9 West Africa1900: Great Britain & France acquire West African lands.1890s: West African ruler Samoury Toume fights French & Ashanti Queen Yaa Asantewaa fights British. Both defeated by European armies.1900: Liberia only independent state in West Africa. Off limits to European expansion due to U.S. ties. Liberia established 1822 by free African Americans.
10 Central & East AfricaBelgian’s King Leopold II claimed Congo as private plantation. Cuts down forests & kills elephants for ivory. Congo stripped of people & resources.Leopold controlled Congo for 20 years agreed to give up plantation for a large loan. Congo region became Belgian Congo.British, Germans & Italians claimed parts of East Africa.Ethopia: only East African country to stay independent. Italy tried to conquer Ethopia. Defeated by Ethopian Emperor Menelik II & his army.
11 Southern Africa1652: Dutch established Cape Town & next 150 years, Afrikaners (settlers) conquer more land that became Cape Colony. Strategic to get to Asia.British seize Cape Colony in early 1800s. Afrikaners resent British law forbidding slavery. Believed white Afrikaners superior.1830s: 10,000 Afrikaners, British called Boers (Dutch for farmer) leave Cape Town rather than be under British rule. Great Trek- move into interior. Establish Transvaal & Orange Free State.
12 Southern Africa con’tAfrikaners fought neighbors- Zulu for control of land.1879: British fought Zulu. Zulu defeated British. Eventually British destroy Zulu Empire.Conflict between British & Boers. British wanted all of South Africa- gold/diamonds.1899: Anglo-Boer War- British won in 1902.
13 Southern Africa con’t1910: Great Britain unites Transvaal, Orange Free State, Cape Colony & Natal into Union of South Africa.Racial equality issue. Nonwhite groups tried to gain civil rights from white minority government. Mohandas K. Ghandi fought & gained quality for Indians in South Africa.1912: Black South Africans founded the South Africa Native National Congress (SANNC). Goal- work for black rights in South Africa.1925: shortened name to African National Congress (ANC).
14 Effects of Imperialism Effects on economic & social life.Africans paid low wages. Taught European ways. Africans kept culture but many accepted Christianity.1900s: Western-educated Africans condemn imperialism. Founded national groups.End of 20th century- won political independence from European rule.