Empire Building in Africa
Between 1800 and 1900, Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Portugal placed virtually all of Africa under European rule.
Muhammad Ali Officer of the Ottoman army who seized power in 1805 and established an independent Egyptian state. Introduced a series of reforms that brought Egypt into the modern world. (Modernized army, set up public school system, and create small industries.
The Suez Canal Completed in 1869.
British wanted control of this “lifeline to India.” Britain bought Egypt’s share of the canal in 1875.
After exploring Africa’s interior for 30 years, British explorer David Livingston went missing. The New York Herald hired a young journalist named Henry Stanley to find him. Stanley remained in Africa and encouraged the British to send settlers to the Congo. When Britain refused, Stanley turned to King Leopold II of Belgium. “Dr. Livingstone, I presume.”
The Berlin Conference European powers met in 1884 and 1885 to settle conflicting claims in Africa. This is where Africa was split up among the European powers. No African delegates present.
The Boers were descendants of the original Dutch settlers in South Africa. The Boers frequently fought with a native African tribe called the Zulu. Finally in the late 1800’s, the British became involved and helped the Boers defeat the Zulu.
The Boer War Cecil Rhodes’ ambition to create a series of British colonies from “Cape Town to Cairo” led to a war between the British and the Boers. British win, first use of detention camps, British create a self-governing nation called the Union of South Africa.
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