2 “The Great African Cake”—everyone wants a bite! Carving Up Africa“The Great African Cake”—everyone wants a bite!
3 Ignorance & Interest in Africa Until the 1800s, little was known about Africa except its coastal areas; until David Livingstone began to explore the unknown areas in Africa, causing a huge interest in Africa & a mad race for colonies fromStarting in 1885, 14 European nations partitioned (divided) Africa; By 1914—90% of Africa was controlled by Europeans (See overhead)
4 The Congress of BerlinBy 1885, this scramble for African colonies became so fierce, that 12 major European countries, the USA, Russia, & Ottoman Empire met to “define the rules of the game” regarding imperialism in AfricaThis Congress of Berlin settled issues such as navigation & trade rights, future colonization of Africa—but it was not attended by any Africans
9 BelgiumAfter David Livingstone’s reports of the potential of central Africa, Belgium became the first country to colonize Africa, claiming the Congo (in 1879)Medicine & new steamboats allowed explorers to go further inland to explore
10 FranceSoon, France gained Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco (where 1 million French settled); dreamed of a huge French empire stretching East-West across Africa near the Sahara Desert
11 France In 1859, a French company built the Suez Canal to connect the Red Sea &TheMediterraneanSea
12 EnglandEngland had important colonies in India & Australia so the Suez Canal was very importantIn 1882, Britain gained control of the Suez Canal & made Egypt a protectorate, took control of Sudan, & parts of East Africa
13 EnglandBritish entrepreneur Cecil Rhodes moved to South Africa & made his fortune in diamond mines(created the DeBeers Mining company)Rhodesia?
14 EnglandCecil Rhodes & many others in the British government wanted to create a huge African empire from Cairo (in Egypt) to Cape Town (in South Africa)
16 EnglandThe race for African colonies led to a near war between France & England called the Fashoda Incident:England’s north-south “empire” overlapped France’s east-west “empire” near the town of Fashoda in the Sudan
17 This incident showed how serious imperialism was to Europeans The Fashoda Incident
18 Other Countries Imperialize These nations gained minor colonies:Spain & Portugal due to poor economies & bad kingsGermany & Italy because they were the last nations in Europe to unify
19 ISN pg 164: Imperialism in Africa Preview:Why did Europeans want colonies in Africa?What role did David Livingston play in imperializing Africa?What was the purpose of the Congress of Berlin?
21 Effects of Imperialism Imperialists profited from colonial mines, plantations, & factoriesAfricans were hired at low wages, were not taught professional skills, & were heavily taxed; tribes fought other tribesSchools & churches were set up to “reteach” Western ways; led to a decline in African traditions
23 As whites made new colonies in South Africa, they fought King Shaka & the Zulu tribe
24 Effects of Imperialism Whites in South Africa used segregation called Apartheid (legal separation of blacks & whites); Apartheid kept Africans out of power for over 100 yearsOver time, educated Africans all over the continent demanded self-rule; by 2000 complete independence from European rule