Published byLogan Gulsby Modified over 8 years ago
12.2- Partition of Africa European countries scramble for African territories. Africans resist, but cannot stop the Europeans.
Africa in the Early 1800s Prior to imperialism, Africa was a multi-language, multi-governmental country North Africa was largely composed of the Sahara Desert, along with fertile lands near the Mediterranean Sea. East Africa was largely influenced by the Muslim religion, slave trade (Middle East), and natural resources such as copper and ivory
Africa in the Early 1800s In Southern Africa, the Zulus emerged as a major force, led by Shaka Shaka slowly took over and conquered many nearby people. This set off many wars and migrations away from the area.
Great Trek A group called the boers migrated from the now British-controlled Cape Colony. They migrated northeast, eventually running into the Zulus, creating a conflict that would last until the end of the century
European Contact Increases
Navigating Africa’s large rivers (Niger, Nile, Congo) led European imperialists to explore Africa further inland Catholic and Protestant missionaries traveled into Africa and helped build schools, medical clinics, and churches The missionaries urged Africans to reject their native ways in favor of Western civilization Famous Missionaries: Dr. David Livingstone, Henry Stanley
A Scramble for Colonies
King Leopold II of Belgium hired Henry Stanley to navigate the Congo River Basin and arrange trades with African leaders there. This set off a scramble for African colonies
Berlin Conference The purpose of the Berlin Conference was to avoid war over African territories They recognized Leopold’s claims at the Congo Basin, but organized free trade from the Congo and Niger rivers They also claimed that a European power could not claim any part of Africa unless it had set up a government office there This led to the completely redrawn map of Europe, on page 395.
Issues with Imperialism
Workers in the Congo (under Belgian rule) were beaten and mutilated, and the population declined drastically. France lost tens of thousands of lives in its conquest of Algeria, in North Africa Britain acquired the Cape Colony in 1814, and also saw its influence spread into Egypt, the Sudan, and West Africa as well.
The Boer War Boers left the Cape Colony, and headed north to set up their own colonies and governments In the late 1800s, the discovery of gold led them into conflicts with the British, eventually resulting in the Boer War, which lasted from , costing many British casualties Eventually, Britain unified the Boer republics with the Cape Colony, creating the Union of South Africa.
Africans Resist Imperialism
Algerians battle the French British battled the Zulus in the South, and the Asante in the West Germans were fighting in Zimbabwe in the East Maji-Maji Rebellion- Germans survive after burning farmlands, leading the natives to starve Ethiopia managed to fight off imperialists and maintain their independence Menelik II began to modernize the country in the late 1800s, building roads, a school system, etc.
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