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African Imperialism.

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Presentation on theme: "African Imperialism."— Presentation transcript:

1 African Imperialism

2 Scramble for Africa In the 1870s the Belgians began to trade with Africans in the Congo. Fearing they would miss out on various raw materials, the other European nations scrambled to establish their presence on the continent. King Leopold

3 Scramble for Africa Berlin Conference
In 1884, to avoid conflict amongst themselves, European leaders met at the Berlin Conference to set up rules for colonizing Africa. No Africans were invited. Berlin Conference

4 Scramble for Africa Berlin Conference
The European powers agreed that before they could claim territory they would have to set up an outpost. Whoever was the first to build the outpost gained that area of land. Berlin Conference

5 The Boers

6 Southern Africa AFRICA The Boers
In the mid-1600s, Dutch farmers known as Boers settled in southern Africa in Cape Colony. The Boers built Cape Town as a supply station. In the 1700s, the Dutch herders and ivory hunters began to move north. The British then acquired Cape Colony in the early 1800s. Boers Cape Colony Cape Colony Cape Town

7 Southern Africa The Anglo-Boer War
In the late 1800s, the discovery of gold and diamonds in the northern Boer territory set off the Anglo-Boer war. The war was from and involved bitter guerrilla fighting. The British won, but at a great cost. British Boers

8 Boers Boers British

9 The Zulus

10 Southern Africa The Zulus
Shaka Zulu In the early 1800s in southern Africa, an African leader named Shaka conquered and united tribes to form the Zulu nation. Zulu Nation Cape Colony Cape Town

11 Southern Africa The Zulus
The Zulus were skilled and organized fighters. Shaka used his power and fought against European slave traders and ivory hunters.

12 Southern Africa The Zulus
The Zulus also fought the Boers as they migrated north from Cape Colony. Zulu Nation Boers Cape Colony Cape Town

13 Southern Africa The Anglo-Zulu War
The Zulus came into conflict with the British as well. In 1879 the Zulus wiped out a British force at the battle of Isandlwana.

14 Southern Africa The Anglo-Zulu War
However, it was not long before the superior weaponry of the British overtook the Zulus at the battle of Rorke’s Drift.

15 Southern Africa AFRICA European Territory
In 1910, with southern Africa secure, the British established the Republic of South Africa and instituted apartheid. Apartheid – government policy calling for separation of the races. South Africa Cape Colony Cape Town

16 Europeans In Africa Britain France Germany Italy Belgium Portugal
By 1914 Portugal Spain

17 Britain’s claims in Africa were second in size only to France, but included heavily populated areas with greater natural resources. British Territory Britain controlled Egypt because of its strategic location.

18 France was very powerful in North Africa, and later spread into West and Central Africa. The territory France controlled was as large as the United States. French Territory

19 The newly formed German empire had to fight many battles against African natives to take lands in the southern half of Africa. German Territory Germany would lose its colonial territories after its loss in World War I.

20 The Italians crossed the Mediterranean and conquered Libya
The Italians crossed the Mediterranean and conquered Libya. They then took Somaliland in the horn of Africa, but were beaten badly by the Ethiopians. Italian Territory

21 King Leopold and other wealthy Belgians exploited the riches of the Congo, and brutalized the natives. Many Africans were enslaved, beaten, and killed. Belgium Territory

22 Although the leaders of the old imperialism, the African claims of the Portuguese and Spanish were minimal. Portuguese Territory Spanish Territory

23 Liberia and Ethiopia Independent Africans
After the slave trade was outlawed, abolitionists in the United States promoted the idea of returning freed slaves to Africa. In the early 1800s, President Monroe helped free slaves settle in Liberia. The former slaves named the capital city Monrovia in his honor. President Monroe

24 Liberia

25 Liberia and Ethiopia Independent Africans
The Ethiopians kept their freedom through a successful military resistance. Emperor Menelik II modernized the army, along with roads, bridges, and schools. When the Italians invaded they were defeated so badly by Menelik that no other Europeans tried to take Ethiopia.

26 Ethiopia Menelik

27 Effects of Imperialism
Positive Results Negative Results 1. Unified national states created 1. Encouraged tribal wars by creating artificial borders 2. Improved medical care, sanitation, and nutrition 2. Created population explosion  famine 3. Increased agricultural production 3. Produced cash crops needed by Europeans, and not food for Africans 4. Improved transportation and communication facilities 4. Exploited natural resources: minerals, lumber, rubber, human rights. 5. Expanded educational opportunities 5. Downgraded traditional African culture  westernization

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