2 Elements of CultureCulture- way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customsA particular culture can be understood by looking at various elements1. Language Religion3. Social Groups Government5. Economic Activities
3 Language Key element in a culture’s development Sharing a language is one of the strongest unifying forces for a cultureDialect- local form of a language that differs from the main language
4 Language ContinuedLanguage families- large groups of languages having similar rootsExample: English, Spanish, Russian, and Hindi are all members of the Indo-European language family.
5 ReligionStruggles over religious beliefs are a source of conflict in many countries.In many cultures, religion enables people to find a sense of identityInfluences aspects of daily life, from the practice of moral values to the celebration of holidays
6 ReligionThroughout history, religious symbols and stories have shaped cultural expressions such as painting, sculpture, architecture, music, and dance.Some of the world’s major religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
7 Social GroupsSocial systems develop to help members of a culture work together to meet basic needsIn all cultures, the family is the most important groupMost cultures are made up of social classes, groups of people ranked according to ancestry, wealth, education, or other criteria
8 Social GroupsEthnic groups- made up of people who share a common language, history, place of origin, or a combination of these elementsCultures may include people who belong to different ethnic groups
9 GovernmentA society’s government reflects the uniqueness of its culture.Each government maintains order within the countryProvides protection form outside dangersSupplies other services to its people
10 Government Governments are organized according to: - levels of power (Nat’l, Regional, Local)-type of authority (single ruler, small group of leaders, or a body of citizens or their representatives
11 Economic ActivitiesPeople in every culture must make a living, whether in farming or in industry, or providing services such as preparing foodGeographers study economic activitiesThey study how a culture utilizes its natural resources to meet such human needs such as food and shelter.They also analyze the ways in which people produce, obtain, use, and sell goods and services
12 Culture RegionsTo organize their understanding of cultural development, geographers divide the earth into specific areas called Culture Regions.Culture Region- includes many different countries that have certain traits in common.They may share similar economic systems, forms of gov’t, and social groups
13 Cultural Change No culture remains the same over the course of time Internal factors , such as new ideas, lifestyles, and inventions create change within cultures
14 Culture ChangeChange can also come through outside influences such as trade, the movement of people, and warCultural Diffusion- process of spreading new knowledge and skills from one culture to another
15 Agricultural Revolution Cultural diffusion has been a major factor in cultural development since the dawn of human history.The earliest humans were nomads, groups of herders who had no fixed home but who moved from place to place in search of food, water, and grazing land.As the earth’s climate warmed, many of these nomads settled in river valleys and on fertile plains. They became farmers who lived in permanent villages and grew crops on the same land every year.
16 Agricultural Revolution They became farmers who lived in permanent villages and grew crops on the same land every year.This shift from gathering food to producing food is known as the AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONEarly farming villages evolved into civilizations, highly organized city-based societies with an advanced knowledge of farming, trade, government, art, and science
17 Culture HearthsCulture Hearths- early centers of civilization whose ideas and practices spread to surrounding areasThe most influential culture hearths developed in areas that now make up Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan, China, and Mexico
18 Culture HearthsThese 5 cultural hearths had certain geographic features in commonThey all emerged from farming settlements in areas with a mild climate and fertile land and were located near a major river or source of waterThese factors enabled people to grow crops
19 Specialization and Civilization Surplus food set the stage for the rise of cities and civilizationsWith more food available, there was less need for everyone in a settlement to farm the landPeople developed other ways of making a livingThey created new technology and carried out specialized economic activities such as metalworking and shipbuilding that helped begin long distance trade
20 Culture ContactsCultural contact among different civilizations promoted cultural change as ideas and practices spread through trade and travel.Permanent Migration, when people leave one land to seek a new life in another, also fostered cultural diffusion
21 Cultural ContactsPeople migrate to avoid harsh governments, wars, persecution, and famines.Migrants carry their cultures with them, and their ideas and practices often blend with those of the people already living in the migrants’ adopted countries.
22 Industrial and Information Revolutions Cultural Diffusion has increased rapidly during the last 250 yearsIn the 1700s and 1800s, some countries began to industrialize, using power-driven machines and factories to mass produce goods.Industrial Revolution- time when these new production methods lead to people leaving farms for jobs in factories and mills, which lead to cities growing larger
23 Industrial and Information Revolutions At the end of the 1900s, the world experienced the Information Revolution.Computers now make it possible to store huge amounts of information and to send information all over the world in an instant.This links cultures of the world more closely than ever before