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Chapter 4, Section 1 “Global Cultures”.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4, Section 1 “Global Cultures”."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4, Section 1 “Global Cultures”

2 Elements of Culture Culture- way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs A particular culture can be understood by looking at various elements 1. Language Religion 3. Social Groups Government 5. Economic Activities

3 Language Key element in a culture’s development
Sharing a language is one of the strongest unifying forces for a culture Dialect- local form of a language that differs from the main language

4 Language Continued Language families- large groups of languages having similar roots Example: English, Spanish, Russian, and Hindi are all members of the Indo-European language family.

5 Religion Struggles over religious beliefs are a source of conflict in many countries. In many cultures, religion enables people to find a sense of identity Influences aspects of daily life, from the practice of moral values to the celebration of holidays

6 Religion Throughout history, religious symbols and stories have shaped cultural expressions such as painting, sculpture, architecture, music, and dance. Some of the world’s major religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

7 Social Groups Social systems develop to help members of a culture work together to meet basic needs In all cultures, the family is the most important group Most cultures are made up of social classes, groups of people ranked according to ancestry, wealth, education, or other criteria

8 Social Groups Ethnic groups- made up of people who share a common language, history, place of origin, or a combination of these elements Cultures may include people who belong to different ethnic groups

9 Government A society’s government reflects the uniqueness of its culture. Each government maintains order within the country Provides protection form outside dangers Supplies other services to its people

10 Government Governments are organized according to:
- levels of power (Nat’l, Regional, Local) -type of authority (single ruler, small group of leaders, or a body of citizens or their representatives

11 Economic Activities People in every culture must make a living, whether in farming or in industry, or providing services such as preparing food Geographers study economic activities They study how a culture utilizes its natural resources to meet such human needs such as food and shelter. They also analyze the ways in which people produce, obtain, use, and sell goods and services

12 Culture Regions To organize their understanding of cultural development, geographers divide the earth into specific areas called Culture Regions. Culture Region- includes many different countries that have certain traits in common. They may share similar economic systems, forms of gov’t, and social groups

13 Cultural Change No culture remains the same over the course of time
Internal factors , such as new ideas, lifestyles, and inventions create change within cultures

14 Culture Change Change can also come through outside influences such as trade, the movement of people, and war Cultural Diffusion- process of spreading new knowledge and skills from one culture to another

15 Agricultural Revolution
Cultural diffusion has been a major factor in cultural development since the dawn of human history. The earliest humans were nomads, groups of herders who had no fixed home but who moved from place to place in search of food, water, and grazing land. As the earth’s climate warmed, many of these nomads settled in river valleys and on fertile plains. They became farmers who lived in permanent villages and grew crops on the same land every year.

16 Agricultural Revolution
They became farmers who lived in permanent villages and grew crops on the same land every year. This shift from gathering food to producing food is known as the AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION Early farming villages evolved into civilizations, highly organized city-based societies with an advanced knowledge of farming, trade, government, art, and science

17 Culture Hearths Culture Hearths- early centers of civilization whose ideas and practices spread to surrounding areas The most influential culture hearths developed in areas that now make up Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan, China, and Mexico

18 Culture Hearths These 5 cultural hearths had certain geographic features in common They all emerged from farming settlements in areas with a mild climate and fertile land and were located near a major river or source of water These factors enabled people to grow crops

19 Specialization and Civilization
Surplus food set the stage for the rise of cities and civilizations With more food available, there was less need for everyone in a settlement to farm the land People developed other ways of making a living They created new technology and carried out specialized economic activities such as metalworking and shipbuilding that helped begin long distance trade

20 Culture Contacts Cultural contact among different civilizations promoted cultural change as ideas and practices spread through trade and travel. Permanent Migration, when people leave one land to seek a new life in another, also fostered cultural diffusion

21 Cultural Contacts People migrate to avoid harsh governments, wars, persecution, and famines. Migrants carry their cultures with them, and their ideas and practices often blend with those of the people already living in the migrants’ adopted countries.

22 Industrial and Information Revolutions
Cultural Diffusion has increased rapidly during the last 250 years In the 1700s and 1800s, some countries began to industrialize, using power-driven machines and factories to mass produce goods. Industrial Revolution- time when these new production methods lead to people leaving farms for jobs in factories and mills, which lead to cities growing larger

23 Industrial and Information Revolutions
At the end of the 1900s, the world experienced the Information Revolution. Computers now make it possible to store huge amounts of information and to send information all over the world in an instant. This links cultures of the world more closely than ever before

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