Culture Culture: The way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs.
Elements of Culture 1. Social Organization -When a culture organize its members into smaller groups What might some smaller groups be in a culture? Families Religious groups Social classes Occupation Interest groups These are things that all cultures have in common. What might some of those things be?
1. Social Organization 1. Social Organization cont. most important - family: the most important unit of social organization Nuclear family- husband, wife, children Extended family- several generations in one household - respect for elders is usually strong in extended fams. Elements of Culture
1. Social Organization 1. Social Organization cont. - social classes: a way to rank people in order of status What can social class be based on? Money Occupation Education Race Etc. Elements of Culture
1. Social Groups cont. Ethnic group- made up of people who share a common language, history, place of origin, or a combination of these elements
Elements of Culture Customs and Traditions 2. Customs and Traditions - rules of behavior (written and unwritten) - Influenced by its history
3. Language Important for communication and passing on traditions and beliefs One of the most unifying elements of a culture Dialects: Language Families: Elements of Culture
Arts – Literature, Music, Architecture, Paintings, Sculptures etc. 4. The Arts – Literature, Music, Architecture, Paintings, Sculptures etc. - Teach about a culture’s values - Promote cultural pride and unity Elements of Culture
5. Religion Monotheism: belief in one god Polytheism: belief in more than one god Major World Religions Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism Elements of Culture
6. F FF Forms of Government We have already talked about this…remember the chart?
7.Economic Systems Four types 1. Traditional: people produce most of what they need to survive 2. Market: basic economic questions are answered by buying/selling goods and services 3. Command: government controls answers to economic questions 4. Mixed: individuals make some economic decisions, the government makes others Elements of Culture
8. Other minor elements of culture: Food Clothing Mannerisms
Ways Cultures Change Cultures are constantly changing! 1. Technology CCars, telephone, computers, fast food, etc. 2. Environment Changes 3. New Ideas (like recycling) 4. Cultural Diffusion: movement of customs and ideas from one place to another 1. (can happen because of migration, war, trade, etc.)
Be Careful of… Ethnocentrism: judging other cultures by the standards of your own Racism: belief that one racial group is naturally superior to another
Agricultural Revolution About 10,000 yrs ago, people were nomads who moved from place to place in search for food and grazing land Eventually the earth’s climate warmed and they settled in river valleys (permanent villages) and began farming The shift from gathering food to producing food is the Agricultural Revolution
Culture Hearths Early centers of civilization whose ideas and practices spread to surrounding areas Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan, China, and Mexico