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Women’s Liberation, Free Speech, Environmentalism, and the New Left.

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Presentation on theme: "Women’s Liberation, Free Speech, Environmentalism, and the New Left."— Presentation transcript:

1 Women’s Liberation, Free Speech, Environmentalism, and the New Left

2 Origins of Women’s Liberation American History Cold War, Consumerism, and the other side of “The Good Life” Gendered discrimination within social movements Middle class white kids rebel Vietnam War and opposition Government suppression of free-speech

3 The Women’s Movement 19 th Amendment Progressive Reformism After Rosie the Riveter “Leave it to Beaver” Betty Freidan, The Feminine Mystique, 1963

4 “Women’s Liberation” Patriarchy Biology = destiny Marriage & oppression Domestic Violence Equal Pay & Education College admissions The Glass Ceiling Reproductive Rights and control over one’s body

5 Landmark Policies 1961: Kennedy: federal contractors must take "affirmative action to ensure that applicants are treated equally without regard to race, color, religion, sex, or national origin." Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. 1964: Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibited discrimination by large employers, whether or not they have government contracts. (Title VII) 1965: Johnson required government contractors to take affirmative action to expand job opportunities for minorities. 1967: Johnson included affirmative action for women. 1969: Nixon required Affirmative Action programs in Federal employment 1978: The U.S. Supreme Court in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, (1978) upheld the use of race as one factor in choosing qualified applicants for admission. Also ruled unlawful the University Medical School's practice of reserving seats in each entering class minority students

6 NOW 1966: National Organization of Women established due to the failure of the EEOC to enforce Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. 28 women $5 Task Forces: Family Life, Education, Employment, Media, Religion, Poverty, Legal and Political Rights

7 Landmarks 1960: FDA approved Contraceptive pill 1964: 33 states, Commissions on the Status of Women 1967: NOW adopted passage of the Equal Rights Amendment 1968: Women's Equity Action League (WEAL) formed by anti-abortion, pro-women’s rights groups 1972: Shirley Chisholm was the first Black woman to run for the U.S. presidency in the primary 1972: The ERA passed the U.S. Senate by a vote of 84-8 and was sent to the states for ratification 1973: Roe v. Wade legalized abortion

8 Miscellaneous Catholics used contraception as frequently as Jews and Protestants, according to a Texas survey (06/21/60) Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike was sworn in as Prime Minister of Ceylon/Sri Lanka (1960) 1968: Women's liberation groups, joined by NOW, targeted the Miss America Beauty Contest in Atlantic City, leading to the “bra burning” myth 1974: AFL-CIO and YWCA reverse their positions and support the ERA

9 Debates & Divisions Race & Class Equal rights & labor unionism Individual rights vs. group rights “Race or gender first?” Who and what is (a) feminist?

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