FlappersFlappers These women challenged traditional American values. Characteristics of a Flapper: Short, bobbed hair Short hems on their skirts Listened to Jazz music Wore makeup Drank hard liquor Smoked cigarettes Treating sex in a more casual manner Were opposed to the conventional social and sexual norms
19 th Amendment “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.” It was ratified on August 18 th, 1920.
Roots of Women’s Movement The Women's Rights Movement of the 1960s was a second wave of activism. The women's movement of the 1960s drew inspiration from the Black civil rights movement. Mostly a white middle class movement Also sparkled by the sexual revolution of the 1960s
National Commission on the Status of Women President Kennedy established the first national Commission on the Status of Women in 1961. In 1963 the commission issued a report detailing employment discrimination, unequal pay, legal inequality, sexual harassment in the workplace, and insufficient support services for working women.
Feminism: the belief that women should have economic, political, and social equality with men.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Passed in 1964. It banned discrimination on the basis of color, race, national origin, religion, or sex. Section VII set up the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to enforce the act.
Betty Friedan Wrote the book, Feminine Mystique in 1963. She referred to the problem of gender roles as "the problem without a name". The book became a bestseller and inspired many young women in the 1960’s to become feminists. Feb. 4th, 1921- Feb. 4th, 2006
The problem that has no name– which is simply the fact that American women are kept from growing to their full human capacities–is taking a far greater toll on the physical and mental health of our country than any known disease. -- Betty Friedan
Gloria Steinem Co-founder of Ms. magazine The whole idea of Ms. was to look at current issues through the lens of feminism. Much criticism was aimed at Ms. for devaluing the role of housewives.
National Organization for Women (NOW) Founded in 1966 by Betty Friedan. Betty Friedan became the organization's first president.
NOW (con’t.) The goal of NOW is to bring about equality for all women. They campaigned to gain passage of the ERA amendment at the state level (more on that later). Other Issues NOW deals with: works to eliminate discrimination and harassment in the workplace, schools, and the justice system. secure abortion, birth control and reproductive rights for all women end all forms of violence against women eradicate racism, sexism and homophobia
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. It was first introduced to Congress in 1923. A big push for passage occurred in the 1970’s. Made all forms of discrimination based on sex illegal. It was never ratified. It fell short by three states.
Phyllis Schlafly and the ERA Schlafly was a leading conservative who campaigned against the ERA. She felt the ERA would lead to a “parade of horribles”, such as: The drafting of women Same-sex bathrooms Higher divorce rates Irresponsible husbands Same sex marriages An increase in homosexuality The end of the traditional family
“If young women think there are greater career satisfactions in being elected to important positions, traveling to exciting and faraway places... or earning a financial fortune than there are in having a baby, they are wrong. None of those measures can compare to the thrill, the satisfaction, and the fun of having and caring for babies and watching them respond and grow... “ -Phyllis Schafly, 1972
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) Estelle Griswold was the executive director of Planned Parenthood League. The case involved a Connecticut law that prohibited the use of contraceptives. Ruled that the Constitution protected a right to privacy. Found that Connecticut should allow married couples to use birth control. Chief Justice Earl Warren (top), Estelle Griswold (right)
Roe v. Wade In 1969 Norma McCorvey discovered she was pregnant and wanted an abortion Texas law outlawed abortion, so she sued, and the case went to the Supreme Court In 1973 the Supreme Court ruled that a woman’s constitutional right to privacy gave her a right to an abortion in the first trimester. Feminists applauded this decision. Conservatives were shocked. Chief Justice Earl Warren (top), Norma McCorvey (Roe) (right)