2 Feminism The Feminist movement emerged in the 1960s. Feminism is the belief that men and women should be politically, economically, and socially equal.
3 Women during World War II During World War II, while men were overseas fighting in the war, women took their place in the workforce.
4 Role as HomemakersAfter the war, many women returned to their roles as homemakers.However, more women took jobs outside the home during the 1950s.
5 Not EqualBy the mid-1960s, almost half of American women worked outside the home, often in low-paying jobs.Signs of unequal status of women included:newspapers separated job ads by genderclubs refused women membershipsbanks denying women creditwomen often were paid less for the same work as men
6 Presidential Commission on the Status of Women In 1961, President Kennedy set up the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women.The commission was headed by Eleanor Roosevelt.The commission’s report helped create a network of feminist activists who lobbied Congress for women’s laws.
7 Congressional Action Congress passed the Equal Pay Act in 1963. It outlawed paying men more than women for the same job.Congress also added Title VII (7) to the 1964 Civil Rights Act which outlawed gender discrimination.
8 Betty Friedan and NOWBetty Friedan, author of The Feminine Mystique, was one of the founders of the National Organization for Women (NOW) in 1966.Friedan described the purpose of NOW, which according her was to confront the conditions which denied women the equality of opportunity and freedom of choice.
9 Gloria SteinemAnother important author and the editor of Ms. Magazine was Gloria Steinem.
10 ERAIn the late 1960s and early 1970s, the women’s movement fought battles on many fronts.It had many successes but also faced strong opposition.In 1972 Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).If 38 states ratified this amendment, protection against gender discrimination would become part of the Constitution.
11 Opposition to ERA By 1979, 35 states had done so. However, opposition to the ERA had begun to grow.Opponents believed ERA would take away traditional rights, allow women to be drafted, or eliminate laws giving women special protection in the workforce.
12 Phyllis Schlafly A vocal opponent of the ERA was Phyllis Schlafly. She organized the nationwide Stop-ERA campaign.By the end of 1979, four states had voted to rescind their approval.The ERA failed in 1982, unable to gain ratification by three-fourths of the states.
13 Banning Discrimination in Education A major accomplishment of the women’s movement was gaining greater equality for women in education.Leaders of the movement pushed lawmakers to pass federal laws banning discrimination in education.
14 Title IXIn 1972 Congress passed a collection of laws known as the Educational Amendments.One part of these laws was Title IX.It stopped federally funded schools from discriminating against females in nearly all areas, including admissions and sports.
15 AbortionAnother important goal for many women was the repeal of laws against abortion.Until 1973, the right to regulate abortion was given to the states.This was in keeping with the original plan of the Constitution.In the mid-1800s, states also had passed laws prohibiting abortion except to save the mother’s life.
16 Roe v. WadeIn the late 1960s, some states began adopting more liberal abortion laws.In 1973 the Supreme Court ruled in Roe v. Wade that state governments could not regulate abortion during the first three months of pregnancy.This was interpreted as being within a woman’s constitutional right to privacy.
17 Right to LifeThe decision led to the rise of the right-to-life movement.Members of this movement considered abortion an absolute wrong and wanted it to be banned.The heated battle over abortion continues today.
18 Outcomes of the Feminist Movement The women’s movement has greatly affected society.Many more women have pursued college degrees and careers outside of the home since the 1970s.Many employers now offer ways to help make work life more compatible with family life.
19 Income Gap & Professionals Still, there remains a wide income gap between men and women.Most working women still hold lower paying jobs.In professional positions, however, women have made dramatic gains since the 1970s.