The Basics of Geography Geography- the study of everything on Earth – From rocks and rainfall to people and places Geographers-people who study geography – How natural environment influences people, how people affect the Earth, and how the world changes
Perspective and Landscapes Geographers use these two to study the world Perspective: the way a person looks at something Landscape: Scenery of a place What is your perspective of Richland? What is the landscape of Richland?
Two Main Branches: Human and Physical Human Geography: people study the distribution and characteristics of the world’s people – Where they live, work, and ways of life Physical Geography: focuses on Earth’s natural environment – Landforms, water features, atmosphere, animals, plants, etc….. These two branches link together by how people interact with their environment
Who uses geography?? YOU DO!! How you choose to get to and from school, hear about other countries, watch the news, use your phone… Most jobs require the use of geography: – Restaurant owner? – Politician? – Clerk at gas station?
What helps us use geography Cartography: the study of maps and mapmaking (cartographer) Meteorology: the study of weather (meteorologists)
Region an area with one or more common features that make it different from surrounding areas Regions are defined by their human and physical features – Languages, religions; climate, soils Regions can have both set boundaries and unclear boundaries – Example: Set boundary: United States Unclear boundary: Tornado Alley Can be any size and can be divided into smaller areas called subregions.
Types of Regions Formal- one or more common features that make it different from surrounding areas – Based on any feature or combination of features – Physical, economical, etc….
Functional- Different places that are linked together and function as a unit – City transit system, shopping malls, big cities with suburbs
Perceptual-reflect human feelings and attitudes – “Back home” easy to know but hard to define exactly – Dixie: seen in different ways
5 Themes of Geography Location-exact(absolute) or relative spot of something Place- physical and human features of a location Human-Environmental Interaction-how people and environments interact Movement- How people and things change locations and the effects of the changes Region-organizes Earth in geographic areas
Organizing the Globe Latitude Longitude Meridians Parallels Hemispheres Continents
Latitude Runs East-West Measures distance North- South of equator Also called parallels
Longitude Runs North- South Measures distance East- West of Prime Meridian Also called Meridians
Measure distances in Degrees and Minutes Latitude= 0-90 N/S Longitude= 0-180 E/W Globe is also organized into Hemispheres (4) – Equator divides globe into North and South Hemisphere – Prime Meridian divides globe into Eastern and Western Hemispheres
Map Activity: Write and Answer the following questions 1.Tell where the location of the scale is. 2.Name and give symbols of 5 things located in the legend. 3.What two states are included on this map? 4.What river separates the two states listed in #3? 5.What is this a map of? 6.In what quadrant is Lee Field Airborne Drop Area located? 7.What 2 interstates run through 5’E, 81’S 8.Give the coordinates of an area with a pond, identify the pond as well. 9.Give the coordinates for the city of Wynnton. 10.Find a multiple track railroad and give the coordinates.