Migration Patterns Global migration patterns U.S. migration patterns –Colonial immigration –19th century immigration –Recent immigration Impact of immigration on the U.S. –Legacy of European migration –Undocumented immigration –Destination of immigrants within the U.S.
Global Migration Flows Between 1500 and 1950, major global migration flows were influenced largely by: –Exploration –Colonization –The Atlantic Slave Trade European immigration changed the face of the planet culturally –English enclosure movement forced consolidation of farms / US was Europe's safety valve –Diffusion of Indo-European languages (now spoken by over ½ the world’s people, religion, art, music, philosophy and ethics. –Present conflicts resulting from arbitrary boundaries and discrimination
Current Global Migration Patterns Asia, Latin America, and Africa have net out- migration. North America, Europe, and Oceania have net in- migration. US population includes at least 35 million individuals born in other countries (contains larges number). Other countries with large numbers of immigrants include Australia(1/4 of population), Canada (1/6 of population) United Arab Emirates is 74% immigrants and Kuwait is 68%
Global Migration Patterns Fig. 3-2: The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.
Net Migration (per population) Fig. 3-3: Net migration per 1,000 population. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants, but other developed countries also have relatively large numbers.
US Immigration Patterns The US has an overwhelming amount of direct descendants of immigrants. There are three main eras of immigration –Colonial Immigration from England and Africa 1700-1840s 90% of Europeans were British 400,000 African slaves were shipped
Nineteenth-Century Immigration from Europe Lasted during the 19 th Century till early part of 20 th century and had 3 major peaks –First peak during 1840s and 1850s 95% came from Northern and Western Europe 2/5 from Ireland and 1/3 from Germany –Second peak 1870s-1880s Still Germans and Irish but also Scandinavians Industrial Revolution diffusing farther North –Third peak late 1890s-1920s Came from Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary Continued diffusion of Industrial Revolution
Migration to U.S., by region of origin Fig. 3-4: Most migrants to the U.S. were from Europe until the 1960s. Since then, Latin America and Asia have become the main sources of immigrants.
Recent Immigration from Less Developed Regions Dropped during WWII and The Great Depression (actually had net out-migration) Immigration from Asia –Leading source of migrants from late 70s to 80s(China, Turkey, and Japan) –During 1990s and 2000s most from China, India, Philippines, and Vietnam
Migration from Asia to the U.S. Fig. 3-5: Migration in 2001. The largest numbers of migrants from Asia come from India, China, the Philippines, and Vietnam.
Immigration from Latin America –2 million Latin Americans between 1820 and 1960 compared to 13 million between 1960 and 2005 –In 2006, Mexico surpassed Germany as most immigrants ever sent –1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act granted amnesty Attracted many more in the 90s 1991 with the 1986 Act admitted 1.8 million immigrants (most ever with second highest year being 1990 with 1.5 million)
Impact of Immigration on US Undocumented immigration –Estimates vary from as little as 9.3 to 12 million plus –About ½ enter as students or tourists and stay –The rest slip across the border without showing anything –Can purchase papers once in Destinations of Immigrants –Mexicans to California, Texas, or Illinois; Carribeans to NY and FL; Asians to California –Areas (South & West) with job growth are attractive