Presentation on theme: "Population Geography A Look at Migration. Vocabulary Migration Migration - A permanent move to a new location Immigration Immigration - Migration from."— Presentation transcript:
Vocabulary Migration Migration - A permanent move to a new location Immigration Immigration - Migration from a location Emigration Emigration - Migration to a location
Reasons for Migration Three general reasons: economic, cultural, & environmental All reasons relate to push and pull factors People view current residence so negatively that they moved People view another place so attractively that they move to it EXAMPLES???????
Net migration rates: Countries in blue have a positive migration rate and countries in brown have a negative.
Reasons for Migration Cultural push & pull factors Forced migration: slavery & political instability Slavery Largest: Africa to Western Hemisphere during 1700s-early 1800s Political instability Due to cultural diversity (ethnic boundaries v. political boundaries) & at times, war Persecution (race, religion, nationality), social group membership, or political opinions create refugees Largest international refugee groups: Palestinians & Afghans Largest internal refugee groups: in Sudan & Colombia Lure of political freedom Fall of communism
Intervening Obstacles Historically more common before modern transportation innovations Physical barriers Examples? Other obstacles?
Distance of Migration Internal migration Most migrants relocate in same country Interregional v. intraregional Most common interregional = rural to urban Most common in developed countries = older cities to newer suburbs
U.S. Interregional Migration (annual average in 1000s during 1990s)
Intraregional Migration Population Change in Boston Area, 1970 - 1998 Choropleth Map
Distance Migration International Migration Forced v. voluntary Forced = cultural factors Voluntary = economic factors
Characteristics of Migrants Gender of Migrants Historically, largely male due to ease of finding employment Currently in U.S., 55% of immigrants are women; also true for undocumented immigration Reflects changing roles in society
Characteristics of Migrants Family Status of Migrants 40% of U.S. immigrations between 25 & 39 With increasing female immigration, number of children increases Ex.) Mexico Most males w/ less schooling than U.S. Destinations = border states Most originate from interior of Mexico (what does this go against?) Chain migration
Characteristics of Migration: U.S. Population Pyramids Native Foreign Born
Global Migration Patterns Source regions for migrants Asia, Latin America, & Africa Less-developed Destination regions for migrants Three largest flows: Europe from Asia; North America from Asia; North America from Latin America More-developed Other substantial flow: Europe to North America Large immigrant countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, United States & United Kingdom While U.S. has largest number, it is not the highest percentage of the population
Global Migration Patterns PeriodPoliciesPattern Before 1914Open policies (“showing up”). Immigration as a source of labor and development. From developed (Europe) to developing countries (Americas, Africa, Australia). Immigration from Europe between 1880 and 1910 was exceeded 25 million. 1920s and 1930s “Closed door” linked with the economic depression. Deportation of immigrants. Limited migration. After 1945More open policies. Reconstruction in Europe (12% of labor force) and economic growth in America. Beginning to shift from developing to developed countries (12%). After 1973Relatively open policies, but with more stringent requirements. Growth of refugees and illegal immigration. From developing to developed countries (88%). 3 million illegal immigrants entering the US per year. Estimates of 20 million illegals in the US alone.
Global Migration Patterns: United Arab Emirates
U.S. Immigration Patterns World’s third most populous country Inhabited overwhelmingly by descendents of immigrants Appx. 70 million migrated to the U.S. since 1820, & 30 million still alive Three main eras of immigration Colonization mid-19th century to early 20th century 1970s to present (continues) Each era drew migrants from different regions, but push/pull factors the same Economic opportunities limited in regions of origins due to population growth
Colonial Immigration from Europe & Africa European immigrants = mostly English (90%) Mostly voluntary migrants, but harsh economic & persecution blurred the line between voluntary & forced at times 1 million prior to independence 1 million between late 1700s & 1840 African immigrants = forced migration through slavery Most African Americans descend from former slaves Appx. 400k during colonial times Another 250k in first half of 19th century, despite 1808 law making slave imports illegal
U.S. Immigration Patterns 19th Century Immigration from Europe 40 million Europeans migrated to the U.S. Pull factor: economic opportunities Migrants extolled virtues to friends & families at home, encouraging others to come Chain migration Largest European source countries: Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, Ireland, & former Soviet Union 1/4 of Americans trace routes to German; 1/8 each to Irish & English European boundary changes make exact country numbers difficult Ex.) Poles
U.S. Immigration Patterns: 19th Century First peak of European immigration 1840s-50s Northern & Western Europe In particularly German & Ireland
U.S. Immigration Patterns: 19th Century Second peak of European immigration Late 1800s Northern & Western Europe Industrial Revolution
U.S. Immigration Patterns: 19th Century Third peak of European immigration Turn of 20th century Southern & Eastern Europe 14% of population had at least one foreign-born parent Ellis Island, New York, ca 1900
U.S. Immigration Patterns “Give me your tired, your poor. Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest- tost to me…” -The New Colossus, Emma Lazarus
U.S. Immigration Patterns Immigration from Asia Last 25 years = 7 million Late 1970s-late 1980s = leading source of immigrants 1990s-2000s = China, Philippines, India, & Vietnam 2/3s of Asian immigrants Also, more than 40% of Canadian immigration Immigration from Latin America Increasing amounts over years, but larges source since early 1990s Sources = Mexico, Dominican Republic, & El Salvador Largest source of undocumented immigrants
U.S. Immigration Patterns: Top 10 Legal Immigration Sources
Impact of Immigration on the United States Legacy of European migration Era ended with beginning of WWI Europe’s demographic transition Rapid population growth fueled emigration (stage 2) due to limited economic opportunities Other factor: enclosure movements & displaced farmers U.S. = Europe’s population safety valve Diffusion of European culture Spread of Indo-European languages, Christianity, as well as fine arts & ideals Seeds of conflict planted in Africa & Asia
Impact of Immigration on the United States Undocumented immigration to the United States Appx. 9.3 million (give or take) Mostly looking for employment Agriculture, construction, industrial Two methods of entry Half arrive legally as students/tourists & stay Rest slip across the border 1986 Immigration Reform & Control Act Current efforts
Destination of immigrants within the United States Most common = California, Texas, New York, & Florida Immigrants cluster near those from own country Distance decay does not always apply Ex.) Cubans (Florida) v. Iranians (California)
Migration in Other Countries Russia Forced v. voluntary migration to Siberia Development policies Emigration Brazil Movement to the interior Rural-urban migration Indonesia Pays people to move from Java to lesser populated islands
Migration in Other Countries Europe Highest per capita income countries = destination countries Eastern Europe to Western Europe Ex.) Poles to Ireland Also, within countries Ex.) Italy & United Kingdom India Restrict ability to move between regions Ex.) Assam