Presentation on theme: "Where are Migrants Distributed"— Presentation transcript:
1 Where are Migrants Distributed Chapter 3 Key Issue 2Where are Migrants Distributed
2 Key Issue 2 Global migration patterns US immigration patterns Impact of immigration on the US
3 Global Migration Patterns Fig. 3-2: The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.
4 Global Migration Patterns Net out-migrationAsiaLatin AmericaAfricaNet in-migrationNorth AmericaEuropeOceania
5 Largest flow of migrants Asia EuropeAsia North AmericaLatin America North AmericaMigration from less developed countries to more developed countriesLow incomes wealthy countries
6 More than ½ from Latin America About ¼ from Asia United States35 million immigrants, 12% of populationMore than ½ from Latin America½ from MexicoAbout ¼ from AsiaCanada: 1/6 of population are immigrantsAustralia: ¼ of population are immigrants
7 Middle EastHighest percentage of immigrantsPetroleum exporting countriesUAE: 74%Kuwait: 68%
8 Net Migration (per population) Fig. 3-3: Net migration per 1000 population. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants, but other developed countries also have relatively large numbers.
9 US Immigration Patterns 70 million have immigrated to US since 1820 (30 million alive today)3 main eras of immigrationSettlement of the coloniesMid-19th/20th centuries1970s to today
10 US Immigration Patterns 1st Era: Settlement of the coloniesEnglish & African2nd Era: Mid 19th/20th CenturiesEuropean3rd Era: 1970s to today¾ from Latin America & Asia
11 Colonial Immigration from England and Africa AfricansForced to migrate as slaves400,000 slaves to the 13 coloniesEuropeans, 90% BritishVoluntary migrants1 million prior to independence
12 19th Century Immigration 40 million (of 65 million) Europeans migrated to the USOther destinations: Canada, Australia, New Zealand, southern Africa, southern South AmericaUS offered economic successGermany: 7.2 millionItaly: 5.4 millionUK: 5.3 million
14 First Peak of European Immigration 1840s and 1850s95% came from North & West EuropeEconomic push factors
15 Second Peak of European Immigration 1860s: declined b/c Civil War ( )1880sFrom North & West EuropeEspecially Norway & SwedenIndustrial Revolution/Stage 2Population growing rapidlySearch of farm land/jobs
16 Third Peak of European Immigration 190090% were EuropeanShift of country of originItaly, Russia & Austria-HungaryDiffusion of the Ind.Rev/Stage 2Population grew from technology & heath care
17 Migration to U.S., by Region of Origin Fig. 3-4: Most migrants to the U.S were from Europe until the 1960s. Since then, Latin America and Asia have become the main sources of immigrants.
18 Recent Immigration from Less Developed Region Immigration dropped in 1930s/1940sGreat Depression & World War IIImmigration increased during 1950s, 60s, 70sLatin America & Asia
19 Immigration from Asia Leading source of immigrants in 1970s 2/3 of Asian immigrants are from:ChinaPhilippinesIndiaVietnamAsians comprise +40% of Canada’s immigrants
20 Migration from Asia to the U.S. Fig. 3-5: The largest numbers of migrants from Asia come from India, China, the Philippines, and Vietnam.
21 Immigration from Latin America Mexico sent most amount of immigrants to the USDominican Republic: 2nd highest source of immigrants from Latin AmericaEl Salvador: 3rd highest from Latin America
22 Migration from Latin America to the U.S. Fig. 3-6: Mexico has been the largest source of immigrants to the U.S., but immigrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations.
23 Immigration from Latin America 1986 Immigration Reform and Control ActIssued visas to several hundred thousand people who entered US without legal documents1990: admitted 1.5 million1991: admitted 1.8 million
24 Undocumented Immigrants in the US Fig. 3-7: California, Texas, and Florida are the leading destinations for undocumented immigrants to the U.S.
25 Reasons for Migrating to US Europe to Asian to Latin AmericaPushed by poor conditions at homeLured by economic opportunity
26 Impact of Immigration on the United States Europe’s demographic transitionPopulation growth fueled emigrationEuropean governments promoted more efficient agricultureEnclosure movementConsolidated small family farms into large unitsForced millions to emigrate to rural areas in cities or to US farmlands
27 Diffusion of European Culture Europeans brought their cultural heritage to USImposed politics & culture on existing populationsLanguageReligion: ChristianityArt, music, literature, philosophy & ethicsPolitical & economic systems
28 Diffusion of European Culture Latin America & AsiaEuropeans established plantationsProducts sold back to EuropeWorkers were nativeHelped European countriesBoundaries drawn in AfricaResulting in current conflicts in Africa
29 Undocumented Immigration to the United States Quotas prevent many from entering the USIllegal immigrationUndocumented immigrantsExact number unknown2005: est 9.3 million total in USMexico: 5.3 millionOther Latin America: 2.2 millionAsia: 1 million
30 Undocumented Immigration Primary reason: workApprox. 75% are employed5% of labor force in USFarmingCleaningConstructionFood prep
31 Approx. half enter as students or tourists Remaining half sneak across border2,000 mile US-Mexico borderEl Paso, TX & San Diego, CAHeavily guarded borders
32 U.S. - Mexico Border at Tijuana The U.S. side of the border is uninhabited and separated from Mexico by a fence
33 Undocumented Immigration 1.3 million undocumented apprehended each year90% are MexicanEscorted out of countryMany return again
34 Undocumented Immigration Americans divided on the issueHelp or hurt the economyDiscuss with a partner
35 1986 Immigration Reform & Control Act 5 years residency citizenshipMany feared deportation if application was rejectedLaw discouraged illegal immigrationEmployers must verify legality of workersFine/imprisonment
36 Destination of Immigrants within the United States More than ½ are clustered in 4 statesProximity important for many immigrantsCalifornia, New York, Florida & TexasMexicans California, Texas, IllinoisCaribbean New York, FloridaChinese & Indians New York, California
37 U.S. States as Immigrant Destinations Fig. 3-8: California is the destination of about 25% of all US immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.
38 Chain MigrationImmigrants cluster in communities where people from same country previously settledJob ProspectsNortheast & MidwestIndustrial jobs: meatpacking, food processing
39 Read p.96Undocumented Immigration Viewed from the Mexican Side