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Where are Migrants Distributed

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Presentation on theme: "Where are Migrants Distributed"— Presentation transcript:

1 Where are Migrants Distributed
Chapter 3 Key Issue 2 Where are Migrants Distributed

2 Key Issue 2 Global migration patterns US immigration patterns
Impact of immigration on the US

3 Global Migration Patterns
Fig. 3-2: The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.

4 Global Migration Patterns
Net out-migration Asia Latin America Africa Net in-migration North America Europe Oceania

5 Largest flow of migrants
Asia  Europe Asia  North America Latin America  North America Migration from less developed countries to more developed countries Low incomes  wealthy countries

6 More than ½ from Latin America About ¼ from Asia
United States 35 million immigrants, 12% of population More than ½ from Latin America ½ from Mexico About ¼ from Asia Canada: 1/6 of population are immigrants Australia: ¼ of population are immigrants

7 Middle East Highest percentage of immigrants Petroleum exporting countries UAE: 74% Kuwait: 68%

8 Net Migration (per population)
Fig. 3-3: Net migration per 1000 population. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants, but other developed countries also have relatively large numbers.

9 US Immigration Patterns
70 million have immigrated to US since 1820 (30 million alive today) 3 main eras of immigration Settlement of the colonies Mid-19th/20th centuries 1970s to today

10 US Immigration Patterns
1st Era: Settlement of the colonies English & African 2nd Era: Mid 19th/20th Centuries European 3rd Era: 1970s to today ¾ from Latin America & Asia

11 Colonial Immigration from England and Africa
Africans Forced to migrate as slaves 400,000 slaves to the 13 colonies Europeans, 90% British Voluntary migrants 1 million prior to independence

12 19th Century Immigration
40 million (of 65 million) Europeans migrated to the US Other destinations: Canada, Australia, New Zealand, southern Africa, southern South America US offered economic success Germany: 7.2 million Italy: 5.4 million UK: 5.3 million

13 Immigrants to the US

14 First Peak of European Immigration
1840s and 1850s 95% came from North & West Europe Economic push factors

15 Second Peak of European Immigration
1860s: declined b/c Civil War ( ) 1880s From North & West Europe Especially Norway & Sweden Industrial Revolution/Stage 2 Population growing rapidly Search of farm land/jobs

16 Third Peak of European Immigration
1900 90% were European Shift of country of origin Italy, Russia & Austria-Hungary Diffusion of the Ind.Rev/Stage 2 Population grew from technology & heath care

17 Migration to U.S., by Region of Origin
Fig. 3-4: Most migrants to the U.S were from Europe until the 1960s. Since then, Latin America and Asia have become the main sources of immigrants.

18 Recent Immigration from Less Developed Region
Immigration dropped in 1930s/1940s Great Depression & World War II Immigration increased during 1950s, 60s, 70s Latin America & Asia

19 Immigration from Asia Leading source of immigrants in 1970s
2/3 of Asian immigrants are from: China Philippines India Vietnam Asians comprise +40% of Canada’s immigrants

20 Migration from Asia to the U.S.
Fig. 3-5: The largest numbers of migrants from Asia come from India, China, the Philippines, and Vietnam.

21 Immigration from Latin America
Mexico sent most amount of immigrants to the US Dominican Republic: 2nd highest source of immigrants from Latin America El Salvador: 3rd highest from Latin America

22 Migration from Latin America to the U.S.
Fig. 3-6: Mexico has been the largest source of immigrants to the U.S., but immigrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations.

23 Immigration from Latin America
1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act Issued visas to several hundred thousand people who entered US without legal documents 1990: admitted 1.5 million 1991: admitted 1.8 million

24 Undocumented Immigrants in the US
Fig. 3-7: California, Texas, and Florida are the leading destinations for undocumented immigrants to the U.S.

25 Reasons for Migrating to US
Europe to Asian to Latin America Pushed by poor conditions at home Lured by economic opportunity

26 Impact of Immigration on the United States
Europe’s demographic transition Population growth fueled emigration European governments promoted more efficient agriculture Enclosure movement Consolidated small family farms into large units Forced millions to emigrate to rural areas in cities or to US farmlands

27 Diffusion of European Culture
Europeans brought their cultural heritage to US Imposed politics & culture on existing populations Language Religion: Christianity Art, music, literature, philosophy & ethics Political & economic systems

28 Diffusion of European Culture
Latin America & Asia Europeans established plantations Products sold back to Europe Workers were native Helped European countries Boundaries drawn in Africa Resulting in current conflicts in Africa

29 Undocumented Immigration to the United States
Quotas prevent many from entering the US Illegal immigration Undocumented immigrants Exact number unknown 2005: est 9.3 million total in US Mexico: 5.3 million Other Latin America: 2.2 million Asia: 1 million

30 Undocumented Immigration
Primary reason: work Approx. 75% are employed 5% of labor force in US Farming Cleaning Construction Food prep

31 Approx. half enter as students or tourists
Remaining half sneak across border 2,000 mile US-Mexico border El Paso, TX & San Diego, CA Heavily guarded borders

32 U.S. - Mexico Border at Tijuana
The U.S. side of the border is uninhabited and separated from Mexico by a fence

33 Undocumented Immigration
1.3 million undocumented apprehended each year 90% are Mexican Escorted out of country Many return again

34 Undocumented Immigration
Americans divided on the issue Help or hurt the economy Discuss with a partner

35 1986 Immigration Reform & Control Act
5 years residency  citizenship Many feared deportation if application was rejected Law discouraged illegal immigration Employers must verify legality of workers Fine/imprisonment

36 Destination of Immigrants within the United States
More than ½ are clustered in 4 states Proximity important for many immigrants California, New York, Florida & Texas Mexicans California, Texas, Illinois Caribbean New York, Florida Chinese & Indians  New York, California

37 U.S. States as Immigrant Destinations
Fig. 3-8: California is the destination of about 25% of all US immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.

38 Chain Migration Immigrants cluster in communities where people from same country previously settled Job Prospects Northeast & Midwest Industrial jobs: meatpacking, food processing

39 Read p.96 Undocumented Immigration Viewed from the Mexican Side

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