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ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (ELT) Applied Linguistics Lecture 4 March 2014 1.

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Presentation on theme: "ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (ELT) Applied Linguistics Lecture 4 March 2014 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (ELT) Applied Linguistics Lecture 4 March 2014 1

2 The most active of applied linguistic enquiry has been in the areas of the study of language pedagogy and SLA 2

3 In the early days, Applied Linguistics and the study of TEFL were considered to be one and the same. Debate about what to know and what to use a language resulted in promoting understanding of the relationship between individual experience, social change, and abstracy theories. All of these lie at the heart of all applied linguistic study. 3

4 Development of TEFL 4

5 GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION LANGUAGE TEACHING (1850’s to 1950’s) The teaching of modern foreign languages was heavily influenced by the more established and prestigious academic study of the dead classical languages, Latin and Ancient Greek 5

6 * * Emphasis on learnıng to read & wrıte * Focus on grammatical rules, syntactic structures, rote memorization of vocab. and translation of literary texts * Vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words. 6

7 * Long, elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given. * Medium of instruction was the mother tongue * No provision for the oral use of language * Speaking and listening were mediated via “conversation classes”, add-ons to the main course 7

8 In grammar-translation language teaching, complicated rules were mastered. This mastery was tested by means of translation. Success was measured in terms of the accurate use of grammar and vocabulary rather than effective communication. 8

9 Using the language meant written translation. No emphasis on the development of fluent speech, better to get things right slowly than say them fast and effectively but incorrectly 9

10 There was no association between the process of learning the language and eventual use of it 10

11 The Direct Method The principles: * Classroom instruction was conducted in the target language * There was an inductive approach to grammar * Only everyday vocabulary was taught * Concrete vocabulary was taught through pictures and objects * Abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas 11

12 * New teaching points were introduced orally * Communication skills were organized around question-answer exchanges between teachers and students * Speech and listening comprehension were taught * Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized 12

13 Critiques * Successful in private language schools (small classes, individual attention and intensive study) * Overemphasized the similarites between FLLand SLL. * Required native speakers as teachers * Its success depended on teacher’s skill and personality more than on the methodology itself 13

14 NATURAL LANGUAGE LEARNING Learning would take place without explanation or grading, and without correction of errors, but simply by exposure to meaningful input. 14

15 * Explanation and grading of grammar rules. * The language was divided into two discrete areas; vocabulary or pronunciation practice. * There was no first language explanation or translation. 15

16 * Grammar rules had to be worked out by students from examples. * Meaning of new vocabulary had to be either guessable from the context, or perhaps illustrated or mimed. 16

17 Communicative Approach or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) 17

18 “ An approach to foreign or second language which emphasizes that the goal of language learning is communicative competence ”. 18

19 Benefits of using CLT * Focusing on communicative competence * It increases all the components of communicative competence * CLT provides the students with authentic and meaningful interaction 19

20 * CLT gives equal importance to both the spoken language and the accuracy of the production 20


22 Features of ALM - New material is presented in dialogue form - There is dependency on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and overlearning. - There is little or no grammatical explanation. 22

23 Features of ALM - Grammar is taught inductively. - Great importance is attached to pronunciation. - Very little use of the mother tongue by teachers is permitted. 23

24 Features of ALM Successful responses are reinforced. There is great effort to get students to produce error-free utterances. 24

25 The Silent Way * Characterized by a problem-solving approach. * Develops independence and autonomy and encourages students to cooperate with each other. Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned. Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects. Learning is facilitated by problem solving the material to be learned. 25

26 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE Adult second language learning as a parallel process to child first language acquisition Undemanding in terms of linguistic production Attempts to teach language through physical motor activity (by the use of imperatives) 26

27 Any question? 27 If not, end of lecture

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