Presentation on theme: "Classical Method : The very boring-sounding method of language teaching described above is the Classical Method, also known as the Grammar Translation."— Presentation transcript:
Classical Method : The very boring-sounding method of language teaching described above is the Classical Method, also known as the Grammar Translation Method because it teaches grammar as a means to translate text from one language to the other. Grammar Translation classes are taught in the students’ native language, and they require students to memorize longlists of vocabulary and grammar rules, and to translate classical texts and other arbitrary sentences. The Direct Method: developed by Maximilian Berlitz around the 1880s, is based on the premise that a second language should be learned more like the first language. It uses a slow build-up of skills paired with a lot of vocabulary repetition in context to help students learn to communicate from the beginning. The Direct Method uses only the target language for instruction and builds up an arsenal of everyday vocabulary and sentences quickly without teaching grammar explicitly. The teacher teaches vocabulary through pictures, objects and elaborate pantomime, and the students figure out the grammar as they go, partially through imitation and partially by trial and error. The Audiolingual Method: With the outbreak of World War II, the U.S. found itself all over the map, no longer linguistically isolated as it had previously been. The ALM teaches grammatical structure patterns and vocabulary through the repetition and memorization of set phrases or dialogues. Once students have mastered a dialogue, the teacher introduces new vocabulary, which the students will then substitute for another word in the dialogue. For example, if one line requests, “Take me to the station, please,” then the words for airport, park and bank can be taught and plugged into the sentence in place of “station.” A comparison might then be made between “take me” and “she took me,” so students could then correctly say, “She took me to the bank.” In this way, students learn the building blocks they need to say just about anything.
Total Physical Response (TPR): I nvolves the teacher giving more and more complex orders to the students, who then respond with an action. The students then get to order each other and the teacher around for speaking practice. Suggestopedia: Th e majority of the activities take place with Baroque music playing in the background. The idea is that the music will relax the mind so that it can retain more material. Community Language Learning - like group therapy. Everyone sits in a circle to have a conversation, and the “counselor” (teacher) assists the “clients” (students) by “mediating.” In the beginning, this means that the teacher translates whatever the students wish to say, and then the students repeat their message in the target language. The Silent Way: T he teacher is very hands-off, providing only props, charts and minimal spoken information and then allowing the students to work together to solve language problems. The Natural Approach: based on the idea that language learning takes place when what students hears or reads is comprehensible but just beyond their production abilities. They’re encouraged to enjoy a “silent period” until they’re ready to begin producing language on their own, and the focus is on basic, everyday, interpersonal situations like shopping, ordering in a restaurant, leaving a phone message, etc.
A shift from forms, meanings, and functions to using the language PRINCIPLESAPPLICATIONS 1. Use of authentic materialNewspapers, job ads, weather reports, menus… 2. 1 function can have many formsCommunication for a specific purpose can be done in many ways. 3. Students can express opinionsGames are useful as activities for communication and feedback. 4. Student need to learn cohesion and coherence.Use of scrambled sentences 5. Errors are tolerated to a certain extentErrors are tolerated if communication is coherent. 6. Cooperative relationship betweens students encouraged Team and pair work: Working together to make solutions. 7. Social context of communication essential.Role-plays 8. Teacher as facilitator and advisorCollaboration with students to reach goals of content and process. 9. Students have choices in communication of what to say and how to say it. Lots of alternative forms for expressing meaning 10.Developing strategies for listening to language as native speakers use it mhttp://www.cal.org/caela/tools/instructional/esl_methods.h tmleanings Movies, radio, T.V, guest speakers
Begin with an assessment of learners’ needs and goals (e.g., where and why do they use or want to use English) to establish instructional content that is relevant to and immediately usable by speakers of other languages Employ a number of different approaches to language acquisition and ESL techniques that match the diverse needs, motivations, and goals of the learners and provide opportunities for interaction, problem solving, and task - based learning where learners can use English Acknowledge and draw upon learners’ prior experiences and strengths with language learning Include ongoing opportunities for language assessment and evaluation of learner progress in becoming proficient English language users Use technology to expand or individualize learning inside and outside the classroom in accordance with learners’ language proficiency, preferences, and needs and to potentially reach learners who cannot attend classes (e.g., individualized activity stations, self-access learning labs, and online courses.