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Unit II Four Language Skills: Aural and Oral Reading and Writing.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit II Four Language Skills: Aural and Oral Reading and Writing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit II Four Language Skills: Aural and Oral Reading and Writing

2 Objectives 1. Historical background and trends 2. Principles and guidelines for developing the teaching activities and materials. 3. Strategies for classroom instruction.

3 Aural Comprehension and Oral Skills in TESL/TEFL A. Aural Comprehension Instruction- Historical background from 1940s, 1950s 1960s to 70s and 80s. Four Models of Listening Instruction Developing activities and materials Strategies for instructors

4 Aural Comprehension 1940s, 1950s to 1960s - Language learning theories neglected the importance of listening -Listening and reading were regarded as passive skills

5 1970s: -Status changed from one of neglect to increasing importance. -Instructional programs include listening with reading, writing and speaking as the 4 skills.

6 1980s -Special attention to listening was incorporated into new instructional frameworks.

7 Four Models of Listening Instruction Model 1: Listening and repeating Model 2: Listening and answering questions Model 3: Task listening Model 4: Interactive Listening

8 Model 1 Listening and Repeating To listen, repeat and memorize Enable students to do pattern drills, repeat dialogues and imitating pronunciation patterns.

9 Model 2 Listening and Answering Comprehension Questions. With increasing speed and accuracy of recall. Can increase students’ stock of vocab units and grammar constructions.

10 Model 3 Task Listening Listening and using model. Follow directions, complete tasks, solve problem

11 Model 4 Interactive Listening Develop aural/oral skills in interactive academic communication. Presentation and discussion activities.

12 Developing Listening Comprehension Activities and Materials

13 Principles 1. Relevance 2. Transferability and Applicability 3. Task Orientation

14 Teaching Oral Skills Teachers expected to balance a focus on Fluency: Hedge (1993) To link units of speech fluently Natural language use Accuracy

15 Murphy (1991): -Teachers should connect speaking, listening and pronunciation teaching. -Teachers should use reading, writing as the basis for speaking activities.

16 Activities to promote oral skills 1.Discussion -Students introduced to topics via reading, listening passage. -Planned group or pair work -Specific responsibility in discussion -Peer evaluation

17 2.Speeches Prepared and impromptu speeches - Peer evaluation: guidelines, video/ audio taped for analysis. - Teacher evaluation: Delivery, Visual aspects, Content and Organization, Language skills

18 3. Role Plays From prepared written scripts From situational socio-cultural variations

19 4. Conversations - Interview native speakers -Transcription of the interaction - Find communication difficulties - audio or video taped conversations for self/peer evaluation

20 5. Audiotaped Oral Dialogue Journals -Can practice fluency and accuracy -Teachers can provide individual feedback and instructions -Extend to other groups or classes -Peer evaluation

21 Other Teaching Activities in EFL Context Use of authentic materials Out of class learning activities: –Field trip –Guest speaker –English club –Language exchange partners

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