Presentation on theme: "Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches"— Presentation transcript:
1 Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches English Methodology IUCSC-2008Mg.Roxanna Correa
2 Grammar-Translation Method (early 19th century) Nature of LanguageSystematic study of the prescribed grammar of classical Latin and classical texts.Language LearningExercise mental abilities
3 Grammar-Translation Method (early 19th century) LANGUAGE TEACHINGInstruction given in mother tongueLittle use (of language) for communication in target language
4 Grammar-Translation Method (early 19th century) LANGUAGE TEACHINGTeacher does not have to be able to speak target languageFocus on appreciating literature of target language and translation
5 SOME PRINCIPLES Literary languare is superior to spoken language. If sts are able to translatae from L2 to L1 they are considered successful lg learners.Ability to communicate in the foreign lg is not a goal for teaching.Reading are writing are the skills developedClass are teacher centered
6 SOME PRINCIPLESNative language equivalents are found for ALL target words.Learning is emphasized through similarities between L1and L2.Sts learn about the form (grammar )of the target lgDeductive pedagogical technique is applied for grammar rules.LL provides good mental exercise ( use of memory is promoted)
7 Direct Approach1886.The IPA is established Phonetics becomes an issue in language teaching. First true scientific contributions to language learning begins.Reaction to the Grammar Translation Method
8 Direct Approach Nature of Language Everyday spoken language. Culture, history, geography, everyday life of TL speakers.Language LearningAssociate meaning with TL directly
9 Direct Approach Language Teaching No use of mother tongue allowed Lesson begins with dialogues and conversations
10 Direct Approach Language Teaching Grammar rules learned inductively Teacher must speak the target language
11 Reading Approach Reaction to the Direct Approach Reading is viewed as the most appropriate skill to have in a foreign language since many people did not travel abroad (from U.S.)
12 Reading ApproachNot enough teachers could speak target language well enough to use it for teachingOnly grammar is useful for teaching reading .Emphasis on translation
13 AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH WWII ( )breaks out and U.S. military requires people to speak and understand foreign languagesThe U.S. government hires linguists to help teach and develop materials
14 AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH THEORETICAL BASELinguistic and Psychology.Charles Fries (1945) led the way in applying principles from sturctural linguistics in developing this approach.In 1957 principles from behavioral psychology (Skinner) were incorporated.
15 AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH NATURE OF LANGUAGESentence and sound patternsLANGUAGE LEARNINGOvercoming native language habits; form new target language habits.
16 AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH LANGUAGE TEACHINGConduct oral/aural drills and pattern practice.
17 SILENT WAY1960 Chomsky argued the language acquisition could not take place through habit formation., but rather a rule formationThis method shares certain principles with the Cognitive Approach
18 SILENT WAY Nature of Language Unique since it is the expression of a particular group of people.Language LearningDevelop inner criteria for corrections by becoming aware of how TL works.
19 SILENT WAY Language Teaching Remain silent in order to subordinate teaching to learning. Focus student attention; provide meaningful practice.
20 Desuggestopedia/ Affective - Humanistic Approach NATURE OF LANGUAGELanguage is a process of communication and the factors which influence the linguistic message.Meaningful texts, vocabulary emphasized.LANGUAGE LEARNINGOvercome psychological barriers to learning
21 Desuggestopedia LANGUAGE TEACHING Desuggest limitations: teach lengthy dialogues through musical accompaniment, playful practice, and the arts.
22 Community Language Learning Developed by Charles Curran (1976). Influenced by humanistic psychology Carl Rogers (1951) and Brown (1994).Nature of language:Student generatedLanguage Learning:Learn nondefensevely as whole persons following development stages.
23 Community Language Learning Language TeachingInclude the elements of security, attention, aggression, reflection, retention, discrimination
24 NATURAL APPROACH listening recognized as a very important skill An outgrowth of second language acquisition research, especially by Krashen (1981) and Terrell(1977)listening recognized as a very important skilllisten and respond non-verballylearners progress by being exposed to meaningful input just one step beyond their level of competence
25 NATURAL APPROACH Nature of language Vehicle for communicating meaning; vocabulary emphasizedLanguage Learning:Listen; associate meaning with target language directly.
26 NATURAL APPROACH Language Teaching Delay speaking until students are ready; make meaning clear through actions and visuals.
27 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE In the 60’s and 70’s research gave rise to the hypothesis that language Learning should start first with understanding and later proceed to production. (Winitz 1981)
28 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE NATURE OF LANGUAGEThe oral modality is primary. Culture is the lifestyle of people who speak the language natively.Vocabulary and grammatical structures are emphasized
29 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE Language LearningTPR is usually introduced in the student’s native language.Meaning is made clear through body movementsMain aim is to reduce the stress.Students speak when they are ready.
30 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE LANGUAGE TEACHINGInitially the teacher is the director of all the students behaviour.In the second phase sts demonstrate they can understand the commands by performing them alone.After learning to respond to oral commands the sts learn to read and write
31 Communicative approach Nature of LanguageCommunicative competence. Notions/functionsAuthentic DiscourseLanguage LearningInteract with others in the target language; negotiate meaning.Ability to communicate in second language/TL
32 Communicative approach Language TeachingUse information gaps, role-plays, gamesGroup and pair work is stressedAuthentic material use is encouraged
33 Communicative approach Focus in on meaning, not formTeachers should be able to use the target language fluently and appropriately
34 CONTENT-BASED, TASK BASED, Participatory Approaches Nature of LanguageMedium for doing learningLanguage LearningAttend to what is being communicated, not the language itself, except when form-focused.Lear how to learn
35 CONTENT-BASED, TASK BASED, Participatory Approaches Language TeachingEngage students in learning others subject matter, tasks, or in problem-solving around issues in their lives.
36 Leaning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning and Multiple Intelligences. Language learningLearn how to learnLanguage TeachingTeach learning strategies ; use a variety of activities that appeal to different intelligences.