Presentation on theme: "Kong-fu tzu or Confucius “Yoda was a Confucist” Born 551B.C. Sayings collected in the “Analects” --“Never impose on others what you would not choose for."— Presentation transcript:
Kong-fu tzu or Confucius “Yoda was a Confucist” Born 551B.C. Sayings collected in the “Analects” --“Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself“ --”To understand nothing is to understand everything.” Five Relationships 1. Father to son 2. Elder brother to younger brother 3. Husband to wife 4. Ruler to subject 5. Friend to friend What do these relationships have in common?
Filiel piety – respect for parents Chinese rulers relied on the idea of Confucism because it promoted the idea of one’s “duty” Confucius, however, did not like feudalism During the warring States Period, Chinese leaned toward ideas of Buddhism because it offered a release from suffering How were Confucian ideas about duty and the structure of society similar to Indian ideas?
Legalism Why do we have religion? What’s the point? Believes that laws are the only thing that can make men good Hanfeizi - founder Does not answer why we are here States the best way to keep order in society is to have laws And to strictly enforce them
Taoism (pronounced Daoism) What do you think the most important human virtue is? The tao means “the way” Main text “Tao te Ching” is collection of sayings People should live in harmony with nature in order to be at peace The most important virtues are: humility, compassion, and No one knows the original founder Some say it was Lao Tzu – means “old master”
Review 1.What was the main text of Confucius? 2.What is the difference between a philosophy and a religious belief? 3.How was Daoism different from Legalism in its views on the government? 4.Why did many Chinese people accept Buddhist ideas? 5.Which of these
ConfucismLegalismDaoism Buddhism Founder Culture How to get Afterlife How religion affects society Hinduism ConfucismLegalismDaoismBuddhismHinduism Founder Culture How to get to Afterlife How religion affects society Sacred Text
Deccan Plateau Kingdoms Dravidians – lived to the south of the Mauryan Empire, in the Northern Deccan Wrote in Sanskrit Were Hindu and Buddhist Tamil kingdom in Southern Deccan Existed at the same time as the Mauryans
Maurya Empire Responsible for the spread of Buddhism 321 – 185 B.C. – Height of Empire Chandragupta – conquered part of the Deccan Plateau
Chandragupta Maurya Chandragupta maintained order through well- organized bureaucracy Many officials managed every aspect of society and trade – shipyards, road building, factories Had brutal secret police to report corruption and dissent Trained women warriors to guard palace
Ashoka – the Buddhist Asoka – grandson of Chandragupta – conquered the rest of the Deccan Converted to Buddhism – rejects non-violence Sent missionaries to spread Buddhism around India Set up stone pillars proclaiming Buddhist sayings
Decline of Maurya Empire Asoka’s death Rivaling kingdoms of the Deccan
Guptas – New Dynasty Golden Age of Indian Empires 500 years after the Mauryans – 320 – 500 A.D. Capital city – Patiliputra Relaxed rule – much power resided with governors Faxian – Chinese Buddhist monk visited and wrote about the Gupta rule
Advances Education: Buddhist Monastery at Nalanda – taught mathematics, religion, medicine, physics, language Mathematics: Gupta empire brought concept of zero, decimal system, Arabic numerals Literature: Kalidasa the most famous poet and playwright of the Gupta Empire Medicine: small pox vaccinations, plastic surgery, surgery Arts: Dancing – Read page 84Dancing
Decline of Guptas Weak leaders White Han invaders
Rivers of the Ancient World Ganges River Indus River Ancient Aryans
Zhou Dynasty 1045-256 B.C. Longest ruling Chinese Dynasty Developed around the Huang He River –Yearly floods like the Nile Feudalism began under their rule Warring States Period – 403-21 B.C. – period of civil war Believed in ancestor worship Huang He River
Qin Dynasty Shi Huangdi – proclaimed himself the first emperor Ruled from 221-206 B.C. Believed in Legalism “Cracking his long whip, he drove the universe before him, swallowing up the eastern and the western Zhou and overthrowing the feudal lords.” – Ancient Chinese Poet
Capital city - Xianyang Established 36 military districts Forced nobles to live in the capital Gave land to peasants Fought against dissent – book burning, secret police, buried scholars alive Built the Great Wall of China and terra cotta army Decline – Huangdi died Megalomaniac
Friday Quiz – complete both 1.Describe in five sentences how the dynastic cycle works. Make sure you define the term “Mandate of Heaven.” Include specific examples of how the Gods showed their anger, how the Old Dynasty lost the mandate, and what the new dynasty did to keep it. 2.Compare and contrast, in five sentences, Hinduism and Buddhism. Make sure to at least mention founders of each religion, where each religion is practiced today, and the religious texts of each. Also describe how each believes a person can achieve spiritual enlightenment.