Presentation on theme: "ETHICAL SYSTEMS OF CHINA The qin – han dynasty “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.” - Confucius Chinese philosopher & reformer."— Presentation transcript:
ETHICAL SYSTEMS OF CHINA The qin – han dynasty “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.” - Confucius Chinese philosopher & reformer (551 BC - 479 BC)
China – “The Middle Kingdom” -The Chinese believed themselves to be the greatest people, and culture on Earth (ethnocentrism) (xenophobia) - The Chinese emperors claimed their authority derived from a Mandate of Heaven. -Other people were considered “barbarians.” -This characteristic greatly influenced how the Chinese interacted with other cultures. -Even regions, or groups, which today are part of China, were once considered “barbarians.” -ZHOU, QIN, HAN – Han Dynasty enters a golden age of Chinese culture.
CONFUCIANISMDAOISMLEGALISMTHE HAN SYNTHESIS -Five key relationships – Father to son, elder brother to younger brother, husband to wife, ruler to subject, friend to friend. FILIAL PIETY -Everyone had duties and responsibilities, which needed to be carried out to maintain harmony. -Sought to live in harmony with nature, rather than bring order to human affairs. -Laozi -Rejected conflict and strife -The Daoists saw government as unnatural, and those that governed the least governed the best -People evil by nature. -Order through strict laws and harsh punishments. - Attempted to destroy or rid China of all opposing philosophies. - Yin Yang - I Ching - The Five Agents - The goal of the Han was to take hundreds of years of Chinese philosophy and make it work for all. Confucian ideas spread to all aspects of Chinese life. As Chinese civilization spread it came to influence 1/3 of the Daoism blended with Confucianism under the Han Dynasty and most aspects of Chinese life. Confucianism taught how to behave, and Daoism guided their interaction with nature -Feudal leaders chose Legalism to maintain order. - Official Policy of the Qin Dynasty. - The concepts of Yin Yang and the I Ching become central components in people’s understanding of their place in the universe. The Development of Chinese Thought & Religion -The Chinese way of life evolved over thousands of years and was/is deeply rooted in tradition. -One of the greatest and influential philosophers of ancient China was Confucius. -Confucius was born in the year 551 BC, under the Zhou Dynasty. -It is under the Zhou that China begins to develop its own philosophical and religious identity.
Qin Dynasty 221 B.C. – 206 B.C. -The Qin are sometimes called the Ch’in (China) - They were very militaristic and unified China (warring states) period. -They instituted a legalist form of government and they had absolute control over the people. -The emperor of the Qin was not liked. * public works & taxes were a burden. * wealthy hated him * banned all opposition & philosophy THE ACHEIVEMENTS OF THE QIN - Standardized the writing system. * Why? - Standardized currency. - Standardized measurements. - Took on many public works. * Standardized roads * Canals - Began the Great Wall in the North. - The terra cotta army(6,000)
- 390 years of rule. - The Chinese claim they are all the descendants of this dynasty. - The Silk Road was established, opening up interaction with the West. -The greatest achievement of the Han Dynasty is the establishment of a “civil service examination.” Chinese government Dynasties fell, but the examination survived. - The Han extend the Great Wall - Education was emphasized. - Social Hierarchy established. - Agricultural innovations. - Assimilation of Chinese culture - The Han Dynasty made significant contributions in: Science Medicine Technology The Arts - The fall of the Han leads to 300 years of disunity. THE HAN DYNASTY 200 B.C. – 220 A.D.