2 A World Rich in Biodiversity Biodiversity- the number and variety of species in a given area.About 1.7 million known species and an estimated 10 million total.
3 A World Rich in Biodiversity Levels of biodiversitySpecies diversity- differences between populations within a species, as well as between other species.Ecosystem Diversity- the variety of habitats, communities, and ecological processes.Genetic diversity- the variety of genes contained with in a certain population.
4 Benefits of Biodiversity Species are connected to ecosystemsLife depends on lifeKeystone species- a species that is critical to the functioning of an ecosystem.
5 Benefits of Biodiversity Species and population survivalGenetic diversity is vital to species survival.Bottleneck effect
6 Benefits of Biodiversity Medical, industrial, and Agricultural uses¼ of all drugs are derived from plants and almost all antibiotics come from fungiSome compounds used for industry come from plants and animalsAll human food comes from living thingsCrop and livestock production has increased over time due to cross breeding.
8 Benefits to Biodiversity Ethics, Aesthetics, and recreationSome people believe we should maintain biodiversity because all organisms have the right to exist whether or not they have value.Some people value biodiversity for aesthetic or personal enjoyment.ecotourism
9 Biodiversity at Risk Current Extinctions Extinction- Species totally disappears from a localized area or from the earth.Mass Extinction- extinction of many species in a short period of time.Why do some species go extinct?Small population sizeMigrateNeed for large or specialized habitatOrganisms exploited by humans
10 Biodiversity at Risk Current Extinctions Endangered species- species likely to become extinct if protective measures are not takenThreatened species- likely to become endangered if protective measures are not taken.
12 Biodiversity at Risk How do humans cause extinctions? Habitat destruction and fragmentation
13 Biodiversity at Risk How do humans cause extinctions? Invasive exotic (alien) speciesExotic species- a species not native to a regionEx.- kudzu, fire antsHarvesting, hunting, and poachingPollution
14 Biodiversity at Risk Areas of Critical Biodiversity Endemic species- species found only in a limited areaTropical Rainforest-7% of earth’s surface½ the worlds speciesCoral ReefsLike rainforest (small area but high biodiversity)IslandsVery distinctive species
15 Biodiversity at RiskBiodiversity Hotspots- most threatened areas
16 Future of Biodiversity Captive Breeding-Breeding species in captivity with the hope of reintroducing the species into its native habitat.
17 The Future of Biodiversity Preserving Genetic MaterialGerm plasma- any form of genetic material (i.e. germ cells- egg, sperm, or pollen)Captivity-Zoos, Aquariums, Parks, and GardensResearch-Understanding the needs and requirements of a species helps in maintaining the species.
18 The Future of Biodiversity Preserving habitatsConservation strategies-Most conservationist focus on preserving whole ecosystems instead of individual species
19 The Future of Biodiversity Legal ProtectionsU.S.Endangered Species Act- 1973Threatened and Endangered list producedIllegal to harm species on listPrevents government from carrying out any project that jeopardizes one of the listed speciesSpecies recovery plan- habitat conservation plan
20 The Future of Biodiversity InternationalUnion for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)CITES (Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species)- illegal to trade goods from endangered speciesEarth SummitBiodiversity Treaty- preserve biodiversity and sustainable usePrivate Efforts