2 Key termsBiodiversity – The number of different species in a given area
3 Think about this….Every day somewhere on Earth, several unique species of organisms become extinct as the last members of the species die – often because of human activities. Scientists are not sure how many species are becoming extinct or even how many species there are on Earth. How much extinction is natural? Can we or should we prevent extinctions? The study of biodiversity helps us think about these questions, but does not give us all of the answers.From your book pg 259
4 Biodiversity can be…Species diversity – number of different species in an areaone out of every five animal species is a type of beetle!
5 Ecosystem diversity – processes in and between species
6 Genetic diversity – all different genes contained with in all members of a population
7 Gene – a piece of DNA that codes for a specific trait that can be inherited by an organisms offspring
8 Genetic variation increases the chances that a population will survive better. The greater variation that a species has the more likely they will be able to survive during periods of disease, drought or famine.
9 Keystone species – species that are so clearly critical to the functioning of an ecosystem
10 Humans and Biodiversity We use a variety of organisms for food, shelter, clothing and medicine.¼ of the medicines we use were derived from plantsAlmost all antibiotics derive from fungi.
12 Humans benefit from biodiversity every time they eat. Most food comes from a few areas of the world with high amounts of biodiversity.
13 ValuesSome people believe that we should preserve ecosystems for the organisms that live thereOthers feel that we should preserve land for human use.Ex: camping, hiking, keeping pets
14 Ecotourism – a form of tourism that support the conservation ad sustainable development of ecologically unique areas
15 Biodiversity at riskAbout 65 million years ago, a series of changes in the earth’s climate and ecosystem caused a mass extinction of about half of the species on earth. Earth has experienced several mass extinctions. It takes millions of years for biodiversity to rebound after a mass extinction. Scientists are warning that we are in another mass extinction right now.
16 Species prone to extinction Species that have small populations in limited areas can easily become extinct.Endangered species – a species that is likely to become extinct if protective measures are not taken immediately.Threatened Species – a species that has a declining population and is likely to become endangered if not protected
17 How is it our fault? Habitat destruction and fragmentation. Google earth Haiti vs Dominican Republic
18 Invasive speciesExotic species – a species that is not native to a particular place or region.
20 Harvesting, Hunting and Poaching Animals and plants are harvested for food, building materials and pets.Animals are hunted for food, or materials such as ivory or for medicinal uses.Poaching is illegal hunting of animals that are protected.Not all threatened species are legally protected.
21 Areas of Critical Biodiversity Some parts of the world contain a greater diversity of species than others. These areas usually contain endemic speciesEndemic species are native to and found only within a limited area.
22 Tropical RainforestsOnly 7percent of the earth’s land surface is remaining.Over half of the worlds species live in the rainforestProtected Forests
23 Coral Reefs and Costal Ecosystems Coral reefs provide food and tourism revenue.They protect coast lines from wave erosionOverfishing and pollution effect Coral Reefs and their inhabitants.Coral Reefs
26 The Future of Biodiversity Saving One species at a timeCaptive – Breeding ProgramsCatch and releasePreserving Genetic MaterialGerm Plasm – is any form of genetic material, such as that contained within the reproductive or germ cells.Zoos, aquariums, Parks and GardensHouse many of our few remaining members of a species and may be the last hope for survival
27 Preserving Habitats and Ecosystems Conservation: Most conservationists now give priority to protecting entire ecosystems rather than individual species
28 U.S. LawsEndangered Species Act – This law developed in 1973 is designed to protect plant and animal species who are in danger of extinction.As of ,272 species of plants and animals were listed as endangered or threatened.
29 International Cooperation IUCN – International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.Government agencies and private parties involved in protecting plants and animals around the world.Stopped the slaughter of African elephants for their ivory tusks
30 Biodiversity TreatyEarth Summit – in 1992 a large meeting of over 30,000 participants agreed to work together to preserve Biodiversity, globally.