2 What Biodiversity Means Variety of organisms in a given areaGenetic variation within a populationVariety of species in a communityVariety of communities in an ecosystem.
3 Biodiversity Certain areas contain extraordinary variety of species. Need to understand and preserve biodiversity for our own survival
4 Biodiversityabout 1.7 million spp (species) most of which are insects.Actual number is unknown.Estimate of greater than 10 million total # of speciesExist in remote wilderness, deep ocean & even cities
6 Species Are Connected to Ecosystems Species play an important role in any ecosystem.Every species is dependent on or depended upon by at least 1 other spp.1 species disappears, a strand in a food web is removed.
7 keystone speciescritical to functioning of ecosystem in which it livesAffects survival and abundance of many other species in its communityPacific Coast Kelp →Sea Urchins →Sea OtterPrairie Dogs aerate soil in grasslands
8 Genetic diversity within populations Critical factor in species survivalIncreases chances for survival in environmental changesSmall and isolated populations are less likely to survive such pressures.
9 Bottleneck Effect Population decreases, genetic diversity decreases Even if population is able to again, an inbreeding within a smaller variety of genes will occur.Population members may be more likely to inherit genetic diseases
10 Benefits of Biodiversity Medical – DrugsIndustrial – ChemicalsAgriculturalHybrid crops resistant to diseaseEthicsAesthetics & recreationPets, wildlife viewing, nature enjoyment
12 Current Extinctions Midst of another mass extinction. Rate is estimated to have by a multiple of 50 since 1800 25% of all species on Earth becoming extinctDifferent from past b/c humans are primary cause of extinctions.Amphibians extremely sensitive to environmental change
13 Species at Risk Migrating spp Those that require large or special habitatsThose exploited by humansNot illegal to hunt polar bears in Canada
14 Endangered speciesIn danger of extinction throughout all or a significant part of its rangeIs under protection by regulations or conservation measures
15 Threatened speciesspecies that has been identified to be likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future983 species of plants and animals that are threatened or endangered (2002)
16 How Do Humans Cause Extinctions? human population growth has accelerated and so has the rate of extinctionsMajor causes:destruction of habitatsIntroduction of nonnative speciesPollutionOverharvesting of species
18 Habitat Destruction and Fragmentation Humans build and harvest resourcesDestroy & fragment habitats of other spp.75% of extinctions are due to habitat lossCougars – Florida Panther<80 left east of MI River
19 Invasive Exotic Species Not native to a particular areaFamiliar organisms are exotic if brought into area not normally found – cats & ratsNon-native: alien, exotic, foreign, non-indigenous, invasiveThreaten native spp.Non-native sword fern in Hawaii rainforests – facilitates fire
20 Imported Species Aggressive & spread over large areas Disrupt ecosystemInterfere with human activityOne of the biggest threats to endangered species & biodiversityBio-Invasion –rapid expansion of species by direct or indirect human activities, to areas where they did not previously exist
21 Birds Starlings Congregate in large flocks Make lots of noise & mess Drive away song birds by competing for foodSome feed on farm crops
22 Plants Intentional/accidental importation Purple loosestrife Accidentally by a ship from EuropeDisplacing food supply of many wild animalsReduces carrying capacity (the number of species it can sustain) of wetlands it invades
23 Plants Water Hyacinth Crabgrass/dandelions/crown vetch Considered a weed – a plant that grows in an unwanted locationTurning waterways into wetlands & choking life out of wetlandsCrabgrass/dandelions/crown vetchweeds
24 PlantsKudzuImported from Japan in 1876 for 100th celebration in PhiladelphiaUsed to help prevent erosionVines destroy forests by competing for sunlightMay take up to 10 yrs to kill
25 KudzuKudzu – introduced to SE United States grows rampant, overtaking trees. In its native China, cold winters cause it to die back in cold weather, and several insects are natural predators
26 Invertebrates Zebra Mussel Native to Caspian Sea in Soviet Union 1st Spotted in US in 1988 in Lake St. Clair (between Lake Huron/Erie)Accidental arrival on European freighter around ’85 – ’86 caused pop. explosion
27 Invertebrates Zebra Mussel Colonizing rock bottoms where fish spawn Filter feeders may make water too clean for fish by eating all the algaeClog industries’ intake pipes
28 Harvesting, Hunting, and Poaching Thousands are harvested & sold as pets, houseplants, wood, food, or herbal medicine.Poaching is the illegal harvesting of fish, game, or other species.
29 PollutionPesticides, cleaning agents, drugs, and other chemicals into food websLong term effects may not be clear for after many years
30 PollutionBald eagle was endangered because of a pesticide known as DDTNow illegal to use in the U.S.Still manufactured here & used around world.
31 Areas of Critical Biodiversity Areas where a large number of endemic species existnative to and only found in a particular placeEndemic plant species as indicator species: are sensitive to environmental changesGiant Sand Treader Camel Cricket found in CO, NM & UT
32 Tropical Rain Forests Home to over half of world’s species Despite covering only 7% of Earth’s land surfaceMost have never been describedUnknown # are disappearing as forests are cleared for farming or cattle grazing
33 Coral Reefs & Coastal Ecosystem Provide millions of people with foodTourism revenue,Coastal protectionSources of new chemicalsPoorly studiedNot as well protected by laws as terrestrial areas are
34 Coral Reefs & Coastal Ecosystem swamps, marshes, shores, and kelp bedsThreatening human ActivitiesPollutionDevelopment along waterwaysOverfishing
35 Islands Limited # of mainland spp colonize new island In turn evolve into new spp – very distinct & limitedBecome endangered b/c of invasive sppHawaiian honeycreeper
36 Biodiversity Hotspots most threatened areas of high species diversitytropical rainforests, coastal areas, and islandsHave lost at least 70% of natural vegetation
39 Captive-Breeding Programs breeding species in captivityBut the question remains whether or not these restored populations will ever reproduce in the wildCalifornia Condor
40 Preserving Genetic Material Germ plasmchromosomes and genesContained in protoplasm of germ cellsSeeds, sperm, eggs, or pure DNAGerm-plasm banks store material in controlled environments for future use in research or species-recovery efforts.
41 Zoos, Aquariums, Parks, and Gardens are living museums of the world’s biodiversityspecies’ last hope for survivalrarely have enough resources or knowledge to preserve
42 Preserving Habitats and Ecosystems Small plots of land for single population is usually not enoughprotecting habitats of endangered and threatened species means preserving or managing large areas
43 Conservation Strategies Protect entire ecosystem rather than individual speciessave most species in an ecosystem instead of only ones been identified as endangered
44 Conservation Strategies identify areas of native habitat that can be preserved, restored, and linked into large networks.promote products that have been harvested with sustainable practices
45 Legal Protection for Species US Congress – 1973Endangered Species Act is designed to protect any plant or animal species in danger of extinction
46 Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) list of all endangered and threatened speciesProtection from human harmPrevention of Federal Govt projects that harmRecovery plan for each sppProtect or restore habitat
47 Habitat Conservation Plans land-use planattempts to protect threatened or endangered species across a given areaAllows some tradeoffs between harm to species and additional conservation commitments among cooperating parties
48 International Cooperation International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)Facilitates efforts to protect species and habitatsRed Lists of species in danger of extinction around the world
49 Private Conservation Efforts advises governments on ways to manage natural resourcesworks with groups like the World Wildlife Fund to sponsor projectsattempting to stop poaching in Uganda
50 CITES-Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Stop slaughter of African elephants for tusksworldwide ban on all sales, imports, and exports
51 Private Conservation Efforts World Wildlife Fundencourages the sustainable use of resources and supports wildlife protectionThe Nature Conservancyhelped purchase millions of hectacres of habitat preserves in 29 countriesConservation InternationalID biodiversity hotspotsGreenpeace InternationalOrganizes direct and sometimes confrontational actions