C LAUSES Contain a subject and a verb. May be independent or dependent, depending on where they appear in a sentence.
I NDEPENDENT C LAUSES Make sense on their own Commonly referred to as a “sentence.” End in a period, question mark, or exclamation mark May join another independent clause with a semicolon, or by using a comma (,) and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS). for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so Can sometimes be identified by an independent marker word also, consequently, furthermore, however, moreover, nevertheless, therefore
E XAMPLES Examples We sat in class on a Thursday. Although they were hungry, they didn’t eat. You and I went to the movie, but they went to dinner instead.
D EPENDENT C LAUSES Contain a subject and a verb, but cannot stand on their own. Joined to an independent clause using a comma (,) IF appearing at the beginning of a sentence. No comma is needed if appearing AFTER the independent clause. Often identified by a dependent marker word (AAAWWUBBIS) as, after, although, when, while, until, before, because, if, since
E XAMPLES Although they were hungry, they didn’t eat. Because we are sophomores, we have to take the HSPE. We have to take the HSPE because we are sophomores. They didn’t eat although they were hungry.
P HRASES Unlike clauses, phrases are missing a subject, verb, or both, and therefore cannot stand on their own Can be used as introductory elements of a sentence, or to provide additional information in a sentence. Separated from other parts of the sentence by comma(s)
E XAMPLES Up in the air, the ball began to rotate. The novel was written by an American, John Steinbeck, and is a classic. They went on vacation, leaving behind the dog.
P RACTICE I DENTIFYING Identify the following as an independent clause, dependent clause, or phrase. Some may include more than one type. 1.) Even though it was summer, 2.) It was summer, and it was hot outside. 3.) Hot outside 4.) I knew it was summer because it was hot outside. 5.) Between spring and autumn 6.) The summer solstice 7.) Summer is my favorite season!
A NSWERS 1.) Even though it was summer, (dependent clause) 2.) It was summer, and it was hot outside. (Independent clauses) 3.) Hot outside (phrase) 4.) I knew it was summer because it was hot outside. (Independent clause, dependent clause) 5.) Between spring and autumn (phrase) 6.) The summer solstice (phrase) 7.) Summer is my favorite season! (independent clause)