2 Clauses A clause is a group of related words. A clause has both a subject and a predicate. There are two types of clauses.1. Independent Clause - An independent clause canstand alone as a sentence. Ex. We walk to school. This sentence expresses a complete thought and can stand alone.2. Dependent Clause - A dependent clause cannotEx. When the cake is done baking This clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone.
3 Dependent ClauseA dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought.A dependent clause cannot be a sentence.Often a dependent clause is marked by a clue word called a dependent marker Example: When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz ….(What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.
4 Dependent Marker Word (aka Dependent Clause Clue Words) A dependent marker word is a word added to the beginning of an independent clause that makes it into a dependent clause Example: When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, it was very noisy Dependent Clause = When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, Independent Clause = it was very noisy.Some common dependent clue words are: after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while.
5 Clauses in SentencesIf a dependent clause comes at the beginning of a sentence, it will start with a dependent marker/clue word and have a comma at the end of it.Example: Because I was late, I had to run all the way to school.Dependent clause = Because I was late, Independent Clause = I had to run all the way to school.If a dependent clause does not begin the sentence look it blended into the sentence beginning with a clue word Example: I must drive to school when I miss the bus. Independent Clause= I must drive to school Dependent Clause = when I miss the bus
6 Connecting dependent and independent clauses There are two types of words that can be used as connectors at the beginning of an independent clause: coordinating conjunctions and independent marker words.1. Coordinating ConjunctionThe seven coordinating conjunctions used as connecting words at the beginning of an independent clause are and, but, for, or, nor, so, and yet. When the second independent clause in a sentence begins with a coordinating conjunction, a comma is needed before the coordinating conjunction:Example: Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, but it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.2. Independent Marker WordAn independent marker word is a connecting word used at the beginning of an independent clause. These words can always begin a sentence that can stand alone. When the second independent clause in a sentence has an independent marker word, a semicolon is needed before the independent marker word.Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz; however, it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.