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The Challenges of Urbanization Transition from Urbanization to Progressivism.

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Presentation on theme: "The Challenges of Urbanization Transition from Urbanization to Progressivism."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Challenges of Urbanization Transition from Urbanization to Progressivism

2 Background Urbanization – growth of cities –Mostly in the northwest & midwest Over half of population are immigrants –Ethnic communities provide social support –Neighborhoods quickly become overcrowded With this growth  problems arise

3 Urban Problems Prob. # 1 - Housing –Tenements  multi-family, unsanitary row houses –Overcrowded, poor ventilation and sanitation standards –Early fixes actually become a bigger issue Prob. # 2 - Water –Very few had indoor plumbing –Better water needed to control diseases (cholera and typhoid)

4 Urban Problems Prob. # 3 - Sanitation –Horse manure, sewage, pollution, garbage on streets Prob. # 4 – Transportation –Cities struggle to update old systems

5 Prob. # 5 - Natural Disasters Great Chicago Fire (1871) San Francisco Earthquake (1906) Many changes made to deal with this

6 Other Problems for the Progressives Progressivism – An early 20 th century reform movement; not an organized group of people or party with a specific goal. Problems –Worker’s Wages & Conditions –Food Safety –Corruption in Government –Inequality / Monopolies –City Problems

7 Political Corruption Causes of Corruption –Rapid growth of cities –Rise of political machines –Many opportunities to make money illegally –Growth of industry

8 Corruption Vocab Fraud = Using fake names and illegal votes to win elections Graft = illegal use of political influence for personal gain Kickback = Bribes (illegal payments for services) Patronage = Giving jobs to people who helped you get elected Spoils System = Giving jobs to friends

9 Political Machines An organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city Offer services to voters in exchange for votes Able to access gov’t jobs and licenses Easily influence immigrants Example - Tammany Hall –Democratic political machine in New York –William “Boss” Tweed

10 William “Boss” Tweed Head of Tammany Hall “The Tammany Tiger Loose: - “What are you going to do about it?” (the first use of the tiger symbol)

11 Political Machines Political Boss Ward Boss (provided services and ensured votes) Precinct Workers (local workers who gained the support in neighborhoods) All used struggling immigrants in order to maintain their power

12 Scandal in Washington Both political parties involved on all levels Conflict of Interest – mixing personal occupations with public responsibilities “The Millionaires Club” – nickname for the U.S. Senate in the 1880’s Money Formula – more money candidates spend, more likely they are to win the election (Garfield first to spend 1+ million)

13 How much money was spent in 2008? 2008 Campaign Statistics

14 The “Standpatter” Presidents Make only minor reform Did not want to anger voters or take on controversial issues James Garfield (20 th ), Chester Arthur (21 st ), Grover Cleveland (22 nd,24 th ), Benjamin Harrison (23 rd ) Open the door for reformist politics

15 James Garfield (20 th President) Chester Arthur (21 st President)

16 Grover Cleveland (22 nd and 24 th President) Benjamin Harrison (23 rd President)

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