Presentation on theme: "Immigrants & Urbanization"— Presentation transcript:
1 Immigrants & Urbanization Immigration from Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and Mexico reached a new high in the late 19th and early 20th century. The rapid growth of cities forced people to contend with problems of housing, transportation, water, and sanitation
2 What were the economic, social, and political effects of immigration? Essential Question
3 Objectives Identify immigrants’ countries of origin. Describe the journey immigrants endured and their experiences at U.S. immigration stations.Examine the causes and effects of the nativists’ anti- immigrant sentiments.Describe the movement of immigrants to cities and the opportunity they found there.Explain how cities dealt with housing, transportation, sanitation, and safety issues.Describe some of the organizations and people who offered help to urban immigrants.
5 Melting Pot Nativism Chinese Exclusion Act Gentlemen’s Agreement Overt favoritism toward native-born Americans.Chinese Exclusion ActBanned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials.Gentlemen’s AgreementJapan agreed to limit emigration of unskilled workers to the U.S. in exchange for the repeal of segregation orders.
6 Urbanization Americanization Tenements Mass Transit Growth of cities. Assimilate people of wide- ranging cultures.TenementsOvercrowded, unsanitary, multifamily urban dwellings.Mass TransitTransportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes.
7 Urban Disasters Burned for 24 hrs. 300 deaths 100,000 homeless Great Chicago Fire (10/8/1871)San Francisco Earthquake (4/18/1906)Burned for 24 hrs.300 deaths100,000 homeless3 square miles destroyed$200 million in damage17,500 buildings destroyed28 secs. (Fire burned for 4 days)1,000 deaths200,000 homeless5 square miles destroyed$500 million in damage28,000 buildings destroyed
8 Reform Movement Social Gospel Movement Settlement House Jane Addams Salvation through service to the poor.Settlement HouseCommunity centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area, especially immigrants.Jane AddamsInfluential member of the reform movement in Chicago.
10 The political machine, an organized group that controlled the activities of a political party and offered services to voters in exchange for votes, of Boss Tweed in New York City was known as Tammany Hall. Tweed used graft, the illegal use of political influence for personal gain, to run the country’s largest city.U.S. presidents had used patronage, or the giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected, since Andrew Jackson and now wanted it ended. Reformers believed civil service, government administration, jobs should go to those qualified and not political friends. President Chester A. Arthur signed the Pendleton Civil Service Act that authorized bipartisan appointments to federal jobs based on merit.
11 Slightly Unimportant Presidents Rutherford B. HayesNamed independents to his cabinet instead of using patronage.James A. GarfieldGave federal patronage jobs to reformers.Grover ClevelandAgainst high tariffs and only President to win 2 nonconsecutive terms. (High School namesake)Benjamin HarrisonHigh tariff supporter signed McKinley Tariff.