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Public Speaking Chapter Nine Organizing Your Speech.

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1 Public Speaking Chapter Nine Organizing Your Speech

2 Organizing Your Main Ideas O When organizing the main ideas for your speech, there are five organizational patterns that you can choose from: O topical O chronological O spatial O causal O problem-solution

3 Organizing Ideas Topically O topical organization is the organization of the natural divisions in a central idea according to recency, primacy, complexity, or the speaker’s discretion O natural divisions are often essentially equal in importance O it may not matter which point you discuss first, second, third, etc.

4 Organizing Ideas Topically O at other times, you may organize your main points based on one of three principles: O primacy O primacy is the arrangement of ideas from the most important to the least important O this principle will work best if your audience is unfamiliar or hostile toward your central idea O recency O recency is the arrangement of ideas from the least important to the most important O this principle will work best if your audience is somewhat knowledgeable and generally favorable toward your topic O complexity O complexity is the arrangement of ideas from the simple to the more complex

5 Organizing Ideas Chronologically O chronological organization is organization by time or sequence O your steps are ordered according to when each step occurred or should occur O it can be either forward or backward, depending on which end of a set of events the speaker intends to emphasize O historical speeches and how-to speeches are two kinds of speeches organized chronologically

6 Arranging Ideas Spatially O spatial organization is based on location or position O it does not matter whether you progress up or down, east or west, forward or back – as long as you follow a logical progression O speeches on museums or the travels of explorers – or even the structure of an atom can be organized spatially

7 Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect O cause-and-effect organization is organization that focuses on a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects O speech may first identify a situation and then discuss the effects that result from it (cause  effect) OR O speech can present a situation and then seek its causes (effect  cause)

8 Organizing Ideas by Problem and Solution O problem-and-solution organization is organization focused on a problem and then various solutions or a solution and the problems it would solve O if an audience is aware of a problem, but does not know how to solve it, discuss the problem first and then the solution O if an audience knows about an action or program, but now why it was implemented, discuss the solution first and then the problems that caused it to be created

9 Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization O each culture teaches its members patterns of thought and organization that are considered appropriate for various occasions and audiences O as an audience member, recognizing the existence of cultural differences when you are listening to a speech can help you appreciate and understand the organization of a speaker from a culture other than your own

10 Organizing Your Supporting Material O sometimes, you can use the five standard organizational patterns to arrange your supporting material, as well as your main ideas and subpoints O at other times, none of the five standard patterns will work and you may need to turn to a strategy more specifically adapted to your supporting materials, like: O primacy or recency O specificity O complexity

11 Organizing Your Supporting Material O supporting material can be arranged from soft to hard evidence O soft evidence is supporting material based mainly on opinion or inference; it includes hypothetical illustrations, descriptions, explanations, definitions, and analogies O hard evidence is factual evidence and statistics

12 Developing Signposts O signposts are verbal or nonverbal signals that a speaker is moving from one idea to the next O verbal transitions O in addition O not only O in other words O in summary O therefore O avoid words like “finally” and “in conclusion” because they will encourage a listener to stop paying attention

13 Developing Signposts O nonverbal transitions O facial expressions O pauses O altered voice pitches or speaking rates O movement O most good speakers use a combination of verbal and nonverbal transitions

14 Previews O audience-centered speakers need to remember that the members of their audiences cannot go back to review a missed point O previews, then, help to provide coherence O initial previews are statements of what the main ideas of the speech will be and are usually presented with the central ideas O internal previews are statements in the body of a speech that introduce and outline ideas that will be developed as the speech progresses

15 Summaries O like previews, summaries provide additional exposure to a speaker’s ideas and can help ensure that audience members will grasp and remember them O a final summary occurs just before the end of a speech, often acting as a transition between the body and the conclusion O an internal summary is a restatement in the body of a speech of ideas that have been developed so far

16 Supplementing Signposts with Presentation Aids O one way to increase the probability that your listeners will pay attention to your signposts is to supplement them with presentation aids O for example, powerpoints or posters with bulleted or numbered main ideas

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