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Organizing and Outlining Chapter 11
Main Points, Supporting Points, and Transitions Main points express the key ideas and major themes of the speech. Using purpose and thesis statements as guide posts. –Specific purpose statement expresses the goal of the speech. –Thesis statement expresses the theme or central idea of the speech.
Some stats about main points. –Audiences listen to only 2-7 at one time. –They remember only those made in beginning and end of speech. A main point should only introduce one idea. They should also be stated in parallel form –Points should be stated in similar grammatical form and style. Always express your main points as declarative sentences.
Supporting Points supporting material or evidence used to justify the main points and lead your audience to accept the purpose of your speech. They are subordinate to main points.
Principles of Organizing Main and Supporting Points Unity –Avoid tangents, or moving off topic. Coherence –Refers to clarity and logical consistency. –Do not jump around to different parts of the speech. –Principle of coordination and subordination Balance –Give equal weight to each point you make.
Transitions: Giving Direction to the Speech Transitions defined Types of transitions –Full-sentence transitions “Next, let’s look at exactly what sales contests can do for us.” –Signposts Next,… First,… We now turn… finally,… –Restate-forecast form “Now that we’ve established a need for sales contests, let’s look at what sales contests can do for us.” –Rhetorical questions “Will contests be too expensive? Well, actually…” –Internal Preview Dayane Souza has overcome many difficulties, and throughout all of this she has still managed to complete a master’s degree, work a full time job, and care for a family. –Internal Summary It should be clear that an education is very important in today’s society. Now, employers are even looking to hire only individuals with masters degrees and beyond.
Arranging Speech Points Topically Topical pattern of arrangement I. Cultural variety II. Economy III. Recreational Activities –This type of arrangement gives speaker greatest freedom to structure main points according to the audience’s interests.
Arranging Speech Points Chronologically Chronological pattern of arrangement –Needs a time ordered sequence of events. Thesis statement: Main Points: I. II. III.
Arranging Speech Points Using a Spatial Pattern A spatial pattern of arrangement –When your speech provides the audience with a “tour” of a particular place. Thesis statement: El Morro National Monument in New Mexico is captivating for its variety of natural and historical landmarks. –I. Visitors first see an abundant variety of plant life native to the high-country desert. –II. Soon visitors come upon an age-old watering hole that has receded beneath the 200-foot cliffs.
Arranging Speech Points Using a Causal Pattern Causal (cause-effect) pattern of arrangement –Cause –Effect Multiple causes for a single Effect: reasons students drop out of college –Cause 1 (lack of funds) –Cause 2 (unsatisfactory social life) –Cause 3 (unsatisfactory academic performance) –Effect (drop out of college)
Arranging Speech Points Using a Problem-Solution Pattern Problem-solution pattern of arrangement –Two main points used: Problem (define what it is) Solution (offer a way to overcome the problem) –More than two main points: The nature of the problem (identify its causes, incidence, etc.) Effects of the problem (explain why it’s a problem, for whom, etc.) Unsatisfactory solutions (discuss those that have not worked) Proposed solution (explain why it’s expected to work)
Alternative Patterns of Organization Narrative Pattern of Arrangement –Speech consists of a story or a series of short stories, complete with characters, settings, and a plot. Circle Pattern of Arrangement –To demonstrate how one idea leads to another and then another, all of which lead back to the speech thesis.
Types of Outline Formats Working outline –Preparation or rough outline Speaking outline –Delivery outline, the one you will use when practicing and presenting your speech.
Steps in Organizing and Outlining the Speech Create the main speech points Note any obvious subpoints Select an organizational pattern Flesh out the main points with subpoints (supporting Material) Create a working outline using full sentences Transfer the working outline to a speaking outline using phrases or key words
Types of Outlines Sentence Outlines –Each main and supporting point is stated in sentence form as a full declarative sentence. –Usually used when: Speaker is inexperienced When the issue is highly controversial or emotion- laden for listeners. When the material is highly technical and exact sentence structure is critical When a good deal of material relies on quotations and facts from another source. Phrase Outlines –Uses a partial construction of the sentence form of each point. Key-Word Outlines –Uses the smallest possible units of understanding associated with a specific point to outline the main and supporting points.
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