Presentation on theme: "Section 6.2. Attachment behavior ◦ John Bowlby Close relationship with child and mother is a basic biological need. Behaviors such as smiling, babbling,"— Presentation transcript:
Attachment behavior ◦ John Bowlby Close relationship with child and mother is a basic biological need. Behaviors such as smiling, babbling, grasping and crying are genetically based social signals. Encourage parental interaction. Attachment behavior characterized by: Proximity maintenance Safe haven Separation distress Secure base ◦ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g0LFewt4Zk4&featur e=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g0LFewt4Zk4&featur e=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1
Bowlby ◦ Internal working model Motivation = biological base Process = experience Three elements of IWM Ideas about attachment figures and what can be expected from them. Ideas about the self. Ideas about how the self and others relate. IWM determines the child’s relationships with other people and the way the child sees him/herself in the future. Children who experience neglect or rejection may develop a working model based on denial. To protect themselves, children may see that parents do not love them because they may deserve the neglect. IWM could contribute negatively to mental health (ex: depression.) Humans tend to reproduce the working model (ex: families of abuse.)
Shaffer (1996) ◦ Attachment develops until around 7 months when a child shows specific attachments. ◦ At this age a baby clearly shows separation anxiety when the primary caregiver leaves the child. Research shows that discrimination between primary attachment occurs around 7 months. Linked to brain maturation (visual cortex.) Display of stranger anxiety/object permanence. Brazleton et al (1975) ◦ Observation of mothers and babies during interactions. ◦ Interactional synchrony (probably facilitated by mirror neurons. ◦ Babies became upset with ignored signals.
Mary Ainsworth ◦ Worked on the Ganda project in Uganda (1967) Longitudinal study of naturalistic observations of mother-child interactions in the strange situation. Consisted of 28 unweaned babies from several villages. The children began at 15 weeks to 2 years. Observed every 2 weeks for 2 hours at a time for a 9 month period. Used an interpreter when interviewing the mothers. Made rating scales to measure maternal sensitivity to baby’s signals.
Ainsworth ◦ Replicated study in Baltimore (1971) and found the same distribution of attachment patterns. 26 mother-infant pairs. Visited every 3 to 4 weeks for the first year of life. Came up with the Strange Situation Classification (SSC) which has 3 groups. Type A-Avoidant (20%): child shows apparent indifference when mother leaves the room, and avoids contact when she returns. Not afraid of strangers. Mothers tend to be insensitive and not interested with child’s play. Type B-Securely attached (70%): the child is upset when mother leaves, and happy upon her return. Easily comforted by mother. Mothers tend to be very interested in child’s play and actively support it and communicate with kids during play. Type C-Ambivalent (10%): the child is upset when mother leaves the room and difficult to sooth upon her return. The child seeks comfort, but rejects it. Mothers tend to be inconsistent in their reactions to children. *Type D-Insecure disorganized/disoriented attachment (Main and Solomon (1986) No particular reaction when mother leaves or comes back. Associated with childhood abuse and chronically depressed mothers. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_m ode=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_m ode=1
Ainsworth ◦ Factors about attachment to consider: Parental sensitivity – secure attachment is particularly dependant on emotionally responsive mothers. Sensitive mothers tend to have securely attached babies. Insensitive mothers tend to have insecurely attached babies. Infant temperament – Kagan (1982) suggests that innate differences in children’s temperaments influence how the environment interacts with them. Family circumstances – families may not be capable of providing the necessary support to the child (ex: abusive families.) Mental health seems to be correlated with lack of formation of attachment to important people during childhood.
Cross-cultural studies ◦ Bowlby and Ainsworth were in western societies. ◦ Main (1990) – secure attachment will be the norm where the social environment is generally supportive of the child, while insecure attachment is the norm in less supportive contexts. ◦ Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) – reviewed 32 worldwide studies involving 8 countries and over 2000 infants. In Japan, Type A is eliminated and a high proportion of Type C. (important to note that Japanese childred are rarely separated from their mothers.) Pattern of Type B being most prevalent across cultures. Type A more common in western cultures.
Attachment and the formation of relationships ◦ Hazan and Shaver (1987) took Bowlby’s theory and related it to adult relationships. Could explain positive (caring, intimacy, trust) and negative (fear of intimacy, jealousy, emotional inconsistency) in adults. Translated Ainsowrth’s three attachment styles to make them suitable for adult relationships. Devised a “love quiz” and published it in a local newspaper. 620 self-selected participants aged 14-82 with a mean age of 36. 205 males, 415 females A second sample included 108 college students. 20% showed anxious-avoidant, 20% anxious-ambivalent, and 60% securely attached.
The Hazan and Shaver love quiz: http://psychology.about.com/library/quiz/bl -attachment-quiz.htm http://psychology.about.com/library/quiz/bl -attachment-quiz.htm ◦ Theorized that love is a process that shares important similarities with early attachment relationships. ◦ Theorists warn against drawing too many conclusions between early childhood experience and adult relationships.
Effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development ◦ Resilient – ability to recover or bounce back from even very stressful events. ◦ Rutter et al. (2001) – longitudinal study on Romanian children. Attachment problems (with a large percentage of the children.) No clear differentiation with adults. “Near autistic features.” Age of children at adoption mattered. Rutter argued that normal social functionaing is better the earlier the child leaves the institution. Those who had the most long-lasting deprivation were functioning normal by the age of 6.
◦ Koluchova (1971, 1991) study on a set of Czech twin boys. The mother died when they were 11 months and the father remarried when the kids were around 18 months. The kids were deprived of adequate food, proper exercise or stimulation, a heated room, or interaction of any kind except for with each other from age 18 months to 7 years. The twins were sent to foster care and a school for the mentally retarded. Eventually, were able to be introduced to the normal classroom. Adopted by two caring sisters. Were estimated to have an IQ of 40 when found, but by 14 both kids had between a 90 and 100 IQ. The boys are now married and leave normal lives.
Resilience ◦ Schoon et al (2002) – should be seen as a positive adaptation and not a personality attribute. ◦ Today’s research differentiates between specific risk factors and specific outcomes. ◦ Some attributes that can hinder normal development: Parental conflict Collapse of the family Poverty Parental drug abuse Social isolation Criminal family background Belonging to a minority group ◦ Positive factors Intelligence Sociability Special talents Close relationships to a parent or parental substitute Authoritative parents Socio-economic resources Good school Relationships with pro-social adults
Three factors that appear particularly important with it comes to protection from the damaging effects of stressful events. ◦ The temperament of the child ◦ A close relationship with at least one parent ◦ Social support in the community Werner (2005) ◦ Kauai Longitudinal Study An entire cohort of those born on the Hawaiian island of Kauai investigated at ages 1, 2, 10, 18, 32, and 40. 30% of group had risk factors Born and raised in poverty Complications around birth Family had many problems Reared by mothers with hardly any education. 66% of children who experienced 4 or more risk factors by age 2 developed learning and behavior problems by age 10 or delinquency/mental problems by 18.
Building resilience: ◦ The New York Center for Children suggests the following. Home visit programmes Teen mother parent education and parent groups Head start and early head start programmes After-school programmes in all high-risk communities. ◦ Lowenthal (2001) – important to establish safe and predictable learning environments to maltreated children. ◦ Engle et al (2007) – reviewed programmes in developing countries and found overall gains in skills such as sociability, self-confidence, and motivation. ◦ Walker et al (2007) – studied ways to prevent intergenerational transmission of poverty and suggested: Food programmes Child development programmes for children with developmental problems. UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund) Assisted governments supporting parenting prograames in 60 countries and at least 30 developing countries. Engle et al (2007) – suggested: Targeting improved nutrition to prevent stunting. Stimulation of cognitive and social-emotional skills. Currie (2001) – in developed countries, long-term benefits are derived from: High-quality early interventions from centre-based programmes for disadvantaged children. Results in better school achievement better employment opportunities better health outcomes less welfare dependency lower crime rates
Freud’s defense mechanisms ◦ http://allpsych.com/psychology101/defenses.html http://allpsych.com/psychology101/defenses.html ◦ http://www.psychologyfitness.com/category/freuds -defense-mechanisms/ http://www.psychologyfitness.com/category/freuds -defense-mechanisms/ *Not responsible for defense mechanisms for exam.