Presentation on theme: "? Choose one picture and tell me what do you think the lesson is about."— Presentation transcript:
? Choose one picture and tell me what do you think the lesson is about.
Write, individually, a paragraph about the picture that you chose. Why did you choose it? What do you think it is about?
Attachment. In pairs, try to think of a definition of attachment, write it down.
Attachment Babies are born into the world completely dependent on his/her caregiver they cannot feed themselves or escape from danger. Bowlby said that behaviours such as smiling, babbling, grasping, and crying are genetically based social signals. These signals encourage parents to care for and interact with their baby, so that the infant will be fed, protected from danger, and provided with the affection necessary for healthy growth. Attachment is a two way bond. Attachment involves two people, (for example a parent and a baby) who have an emotional link between each other, which ties them together. It also takes longer to develop than a bond.
How can we see that two people have an attachment to each other? Seeking proximity: the two people who have an attachment want to be near to each other and spend time together. A young baby will try to maintain proximity to the caregiver by watching them carefully, an howling when they go too far away. An older, more mobile baby will simply crawl after their attachment figure. Distress of separation: the young infant will show distress when the caregiver leaves even for a short period of time. The older child may miss their parents and feel homesick on a school trip.
Joy on reunion: the baby will welcome back their attachment figure often by clinging to them and hugging them even when they have only been gone for five minutes. General orientation of behavior towards the other person: both baby and caregiver direct their attention to each other and try to engage each other in activities and interaction.
Can you relate to theses behaviours? Do you think adolescents and adults can form new attachments?
How do human babies develop attachments? Ethologist, including Konrad Lorenz, (1935) studied animals and how they form attachments soon after birth. New born orphan animals form attachment to any animal that happens to be present and to follow as if it were the real mother. He called Imprinting to the tendency to form an attachment to the first large moving object. For Lorenz, this must happen during the critical period, that’s 32 hours after birth.
Unlike the ducklings, humans are not mobile when they have just born. They have a long period of immaturity and only begin to crawl at about eight months of age. Therefore, formation of an early protective bond from adult (and particularly mother) to a baby would promote the survival of the infant by ensuring that the mother stayed close to them in order to protect them.
Key concepts: Internal working Model is a template for future relationships Sensitive period is the first 3 years of life Monotropy a single attachment to one person who is most important to the baby.
During the following weeks we will study attachment. Why do you think it is important? http://youtu.be/kZfPsLi8Pfk What would happen if there’s a disruption of attachment?
Mary Ainsworth and the strange situation paradigm Mary Ainsworth was a US psychologist who operationalized Bowlby’s concept of attachment so that it could be tested empirically. The strange situation paradigm is still widely used in research on attachment including cross-culturally.
Ainsworth (1970) This study looked at individual differences in attachment. In Ainsworth’s “Strange Situation”, infants aged one year to 18 months were observed though video cameras in a purposed-built laboratory playroom with their mothers. The room contained two comfortable chairs and a play area with a set of toys suitable for young children. The procedure in Ainsworth’s research consisted of a series of situations, which were standardized for all the babies who took part.
1.Mother and infant enter the room. Mother sits in one of the chairs and reads a magazine. Child is placed on the floor and free to explore toys. 2.After about three minutes, a stranger enters, sit on the other chair and talks briefly to the mother. 3.The stranger approaches the infant an attempts to interact and play with them. 4.Mother leas the room so the infant is alone with the stranger. The stranger comforts the infant if she of he is upset and offers to play 5.After around three minutes, mother returns an the stranger leaves. 6.Three minutes later mother departs again leaving the baby briefly alone in the room. 7.The stranger re-enters the room and offers to comfort and play with the baby. 8.Mother returns and the stranger leaves.
Using this procedure, Ainsworth was able to monitor the infant’s behavior in a variety of situations including the departure of the mother to assess separation anxiety, and the introduction of a stranger to measure stranger anxiety. She also examined the baby’s behavior towards the mother in a strange environment to asses whether or not the baby used her a safe base to explore the room. From her study, Ainsworth identified three broad types of attachment behaviour shown in the infants.
Attachment typeBehaviour patterns Secure infants (type B attachment) These babies used their mother as a safe base and were happy to explore the room when she was present. They showed distress by crying when she left, an welcomed her back on her return, setting back down to play fairly quickly. They were wary of the stranger and treated them very differently to their mother. 70% of the babies fell into this category. Insecure-avoidant attachment (type A) These babies did not orient their behaviour towards their mother in the same way. They showed some distress at her departure but did not seek comfort from her when she returned. They also rejected the stranger’s attempts to comfort them. The relationship of these babies involved keeping a distance avoiding closeness. 15% of babies fell into this category. Insecure-ambivalent attachment (type C) These babies were very upset at separation but were not easily comforted when the mother returned. They appeared to be angry and rejected her attempts to comfort them. These babies seemed to expect the relationship to be difficult and they alternated between seeking closeness and wanting distance. 15% of babies fell into this category.