Presentation on theme: "Implications of research into attachment and day care"— Presentation transcript:
1 Implications of research into attachment and day care
2 influence of attachment research Improving the quality of day care Understanding attachment processes can be applied to improving the quality of day care. E.g. The Soho Family Centre – this centre’s day care programme is based on attachment theory, thus each child is ensured close emotional relationships.EvaluationBowlby’s theory supports the usefulness of secondary attachment figures in providing continuous emotional care.
3 influence of attachment research Caring for children in hospital Attachment research has been applied to situations where children experience physical separation from primary attachment figures. E.g. visiting arrangements when children are in hospital or in foster homes.EvaluationSupported by the Robertsons’ research which showed that any negative effects of emotional disruption could be avoided if substitute emotional care was provided as well as maintaining links with existing attachment figures.
4 influence of attachment research Adoption In the past, mothers who were going to give their baby up for adoption were encouraged to nurse the baby for a significant period of time. By the time the baby was adopted, the sensitive period for attachment may have passed, making it difficult for the baby to form secure attachments with their adoptive parents. Today most babies are adopted within the first week of birth and research shows that adoptive mothers and children are just as securely-attached as non-adoptive families (Singer et al, 1985).EvaluationStudies on privation (Hodges and Tizard) have shown that a failure to form attachment early in life can have LT consequences.
5 influence of attachment research Improving the quality of parenting E.g. The ‘Circle of Security’ which helped caregivers learn to respond more sensitively to their young children and therefore promoted secure attachment.EvaluationResearch by Quinton et al (1984) found that poor parenting may be related to parents’ own childhood experiences.Quinton et al (1984) – compared a group of 50 women reared in institutions (children’s homes) with a control group of 50 women reared at home. When the women were in their 20s it was found that ex-institutional women were experiencing extreme difficulties acting as parents. E.g. they had children who had spent time in care.
6 influence of day care research Importance of high quality day careTo avoid potential negative consequences e.g. increased aggression.Field et al (1991) found that the greatest benefits of day care on peer relations were for those children in high-quality care.To maximise positive effects we need to maximise the quality of care provided (i.e. sensitive care).EvaluationHigh-quality care = ability to respond sensitively to a child’s emotional needs.Bowlby and Ainsworth both suggested that healthy, secure attachments are formed with adults who respond with the greatest sensitivity to an infant’s behaviour.
7 influence of day care research Good staff-to-child ratiosThe amount of children to each member of day care staff.NICHD study (1999) found that day care staff could only provide sensitive, high-quality care if the ratios were as low as 1:3.Even then, day care staff may be overwhelmed and unable to offer consistent care.
8 influence of day care research Minimal staff turnoverHow often day care staff are changed.Schaffer (1998) identified consistency of care as one of the most important factors in good outcomes.When staff come and go children may either fail to form attachments to the staff or, if they have already formed an attachment, they suffer the anxiety associated with disruption of attachment when the staff leave.
9 influence of day care research Qualified and experienced staffSylva et al (2003) - EPPE study – found that the quality of care provided was positively correlated with the qualification levels of the day care staff.The higher the qualifications of staff, the better the outcomes in terms of social development of the children.
10 Evaluation: influence of day care research Good staff-to-child ratios, minimal staff turnover and having qualified and experienced staff = related to producing high-quality, sensitive care.In reality this may be where child care provision is failing.NICHD study (1999) – only 23% of infant care providers give ‘highly’ sensitive care.
11 Independent tasks Exam question in booklet. Match the researcher to the study.True or false?
12 Task 1 answers Harlow (1959) The ‘strange situation’ Bowlby (1969) The ‘strange situation’Bowlby (1969)The effects of separationAinsworth et al (1978)Deprivation dwarfismVan IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988)Isolated children – the Czech twinsRobertson and Robertson ( )The effects of institutionalisation Hodges and Tizard (1989)Contact comfort is more important than food in attachment.Rutter et al (2007)The link between day care and aggressionGardner (1972)Cross-cultural differences in attachmentKoluchova (1976)Controlled study on institutionalisation and privationNICHD study (1991)Evolutionary theory of attachment
13 Task 2 answers Statement True or false Mary Ainsworth devised the ‘strange situation’ and identified three attachment types.TrueDisruption of attachment is when the bond between an infant and their caregiver is broken (e.g. separation).Research has found that children in day care can be more aggressive and have poor relationships with adults.FalseBowlby’s attachment theory is a learning theory and involves situations to test stranger anxiety and separation anxiety.Genie is an example of privation as she failed to form a bond with an attachment figure.There is correlational evidence to support the link between day care and aggression so we can conclude that day care causes aggression in childhood.