Stranger anxiety – fear of strangers that infants commonly display › Displayed ~ 6 months old
Attachment – an emotional tie with another person; seen in young children by seeking closeness to the caregiver
Familiarity › Attachment forms during a critical period – period shortly after birth when certain events must take place to facilitate proper development › Imprinting – certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life Ex. Konrad Lorenz studied what ducks would do if he was the first thing they saw after being born. They followed him around. Lorenz also found that imprinting occurred with various other moving objects. Movie Trailer – Fly Away Home Movie Trailer – Fly Away Home
Attachment theorists believe that if proper emotional ties are formed (from birth to one) with caregiver then social and emotional development is more likely to flourish. To do this caregiver needs to be nurturing, trusting and show responsiveness. They believe it’s the most important time of life. Q. What might happen if you parent a child and respond every time a 3 year old cries, whines and/or says he/she needs something?
Body Contact – attached to those who satisfy needs › Ex. Harry Harlow bred monkeys and placed them in cages with a baby blanket. The monkeys became attached to the blanket. Harlow then created two artificial mothers – one wire mother with a wooden head and one terrycloth monkey. Monkeys preferred the cloth mother. › Video: YouTube - Harlow's MonkeysYouTube - Harlow's Monkeys › › HarryHarlow strange situation HarryHarlow strange situation
Ex. Mary Ainsworth – studied attachment by observing mother and infants in the first 6 months. Later she places 1 year olds in a strange situation without their mothers. Mothers seen as sensitive in the first observation, had children with secure attachments, Mothers seen as insensitive had children with insecure attachments. Video Clip – Strange Situation Video Clip – Strange Situation
Securely Attached infants (had responsive parent) will: play comfortably in their mother’s presence, use mom as a homebase are distressed when mom leaves and seeks contact upon return but not clingy.
Insecurely Attached infants may: explore less in the mother’s presence cling to her be ambivalent about mom having left be crying uncontrollably Secure vs Insecure Attachments Strange Situation Secure vs Insecure Attachments Strange Situation
Secure attachment predicts social competence › Erikson states that children with secure attachment approach life with basic trust – the belief that the world is predictable and trustworthy › Basic trust develops with appropriate responses by caregivers (loving, caring, nurturing) › Life without forming attachments could cause one to fear the world, no basic trust develops. › Harlow’s monkeys, if reared alone were later terrified to be surrounded by adult monkeys.
Interruption during attachment › Most infants recover if placed in a stable, nurturing environment
By the age of 12 children have a sense of self Self concept – a sense of one’s identity and personal worth By the time children reach school age they begin to describe themselves by their gender and group memberships and compare themselves to other children. The Rouge Test – Self-recognition (video)Self-recognition (video) › Children recognize themselves with rouge on forehead around 18 mo.
1. Complete the Parental Authority Questionaire using your mother, father OR guardian.
Authoritarian - Parents impose rules and expect obedience Permissive – parents submit desires, make few demands, and use little punishment Authoritative – Parents are both demanding and responsive (open discussion about the rules and explanation for the rules, discussion about exceptions to the rules)
In Pairs, go through each of the 21 parenting Styles. For each one, decide whether you think it represents a: Authoritarian (place an N) Permissive (place a P) Authoritative (place a V)
Directions: Add up your scores from the following numbers 1,6,10,13,14,17,19 = Permissive / 2,3, 7, 9, 12, 16, 18= Authoritarian, add up the remaining ones = Authoritative.
Children with the highest self-esteem have authoritative parents › When people are given control over their own life they become motivated and confident › Don’t jump to conclusions that correlation = causation. Other third factors could be causing high social competence (ex. genes, harmonious marriage)