2 Chapter Sections 1.1 – Why Study Psychology? 1.2 – What do psychologists do?1.3 – A history o psychology?1.4 – Contemporary Perspectives
3 1.1 Why Study Psychology?Psychology - the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.Behavior – is any action that other people can observe or measureLet’s define observable behavior…..Give some examples.Walking, talking, heart beating, pressing a switch, blood pressure, etc.Cognitive Activities (mental processes) – private unobservable mental processes such as sensations, perceptions, thought, and problem solving.Cognitive activities are measured in psychological constructs
4 5 Goals of Psychology Observe Describe Explain Predict Control Read The Goals of Psychology on page 4 in your book- When finished reading turn to your neighbor and discuss the 5 goals.
5 Psychology a Science????Psychology is a social science , along with history, anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology.Social sciences deal with the structure of human society and the nature of human interactions by those individuals in society.Psychology tests ideas through various research methods.Most common methods : surveys & experimentationCan anyone think of a psychological survey or experiment they have heard of or taken part in?????
6 Psychological Theories & Principles Psychological research is organized into theories.Theory – is a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and happen the way they do.May include statements about behaviors, mental processes, or biological processes.Principle – is a rule or law, like saying you will probably get better grades if you study more.A useful psychological theory allows psychologists to better predict behavior and mental process.
7 1.2 What Psychologists Do? Types of psychologists Clinical Counseling SchoolEducationalDevelopmentalPersonalitySocialExperimentalOther
8 Clinical Psychologist Most common form of psychologyHelp people with psychological problems, such as anxiety or depression, or psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia.Trained to help people through the use of interviews and psychological tests.Work in hospitals, prisons, colleges, and private practicesHave you ever heard the phrase, “and……how does that make you feel?” – cliché saying
9 Psychologists vs. Psychiatrists A psychologists specializes in the treatments of psychological problems but because they are not medical doctors they CAN NOT prescribe medicine.A psychiatrists is a medical doctor that specializes in treatment of the psychological disorder and who can prescribe medicine.
10 Counseling Psychologists Use interviews and tests to identify the problemsTypically treat people who have adjustment problems rather than serious disorders.Family conflicts, employment problems, relationship problemsOften work in businesses, colleges, and testing centers.
11 School PsychologistsIdentify and help students who have problems that may interfere with learning.May include: peer and group family problems, psychological problems, learning disorders, and cognitive delays.Clients are identified by talking with teachers, parents, and the students themselves.May also administer intelligence or achievement tests.
12 Educational Psychologists Generally focus on helping students through course planning and instructional methods for the entire school system, rather than one individual student.They focus on 4 areas of the way a student learns:Psychological factors – motivation, emotions, etc.Cultural factors – beliefs, religionsEconomic factors – income earned by familyInstructional methods used in the classrooms
13 Developmental Psychologists Study the changes that occur over a person’s lifetime.Physical – height, weight, sexual maturityEmotional - self – concept, self – esteemCognitive – learning right from wrong as childrenSocial – formation of bonds, relations with peers and adults
14 Personality Psychologists Identify characteristics or traits of people.Ex. Shyness or friendlinessLook for many different traits people have and they study the development of these traits (anxiety, aggression, gender roles)Share with clinical psychologists and interest in the origins of psychological problems an disorders.
15 Social PsychologistsConcerned with people behaviors in social situations.Generally focus on external influences:Interaction between women and menPhysical and psychological factors of attractionConforming to standardsBehavior change when becoming a member of a groupReasons for prejudice and discriminationSituations where people act aggressively to help others
16 Experimental Psychologists Conduct research into basic processes such as the functions of the nervous systemMainly focused on the biological of humansMore likely than others to engage in basic researchBasic research – research that has no immediate application and is done for its own sake.
17 Other Specialists Industrial and Organizational Psychologists Environmental PsychologistsConsumer PsychologistsForensic PsychologistHealth Psychologists
18 1.3 History of Psychology Roots from ancient Greece Began more than 2,000 years agoPlato– “know thyself”, currently known as introspection which means “looking within”Aristotle – outlines the laws of associationism.Associationism – Experiences often remind us of similar experiences in the past, how the face of a loved one makes us feel secure.
19 Development in Middle Ages Most Europeans believed that problems such as agitation and confusion were signs of demonic possession.Tests were done on people to determine if they were possessed – water-float testWater-float test – Individuals suspected of being possessed were thrown into deep water, if they managed to keep their head above water they were considered impure and in league with the devil, they were then executed, those that sunk to the bottom, were considered pure but often drown as well…..
20 The Birth of Modern Science Birth of modern psychology in the 1800’sLaboratories were developed in Europe and the US to provide evidence of behavior.Most historians point the year 1879 as the beginning of psychology.
21 Wilhelm Wundt & Structuralism ( )Founded Structuralism – concerned with discovering the basic elements of consciousnessConsciousness : 2 partsObjective SensationsSubjective Feelings
22 William James & Functionalism ( )Focused on the relationships between experience and behaviorFunctionalism – concerned with how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environmentDiscuss adaptive behaviors…
23 John B. Watson & Behaviorism ( )Developed the idea of observable behaviorBehaviorism – the scientific study of observable behaviorWhat is observable behavior?
24 B.F. Skinner & Reinforcement (1904 – 1990)When rewarded for something positive an animal or human is more likely to perform that action in the future.According to Skinner people learn the same way as animals.
25 The Gestalt School Look at the 2 drawings on page 17 in your book. Context influences perceptionGestalt psychologists rejected the behaviorists notion and says that psychologists should not focus strictly on observable behavior.Insight…the sudden appearance of Gestalt that enables the individual to see the solution.
26 Sigmund Freud & Psychoanalysis (1856 – 1939)Most famous of the early psychologistsPsychoanalysis – emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts in determining human behavior.Psychodynamic Thinking – assumes that most of what exists in an individuals mind in unconscious and consists of conflicting influences, urges, and wishes.
27 1.4 Contemporary Perspectives BiologicalEvolutionaryCognitiveHumanisticPsychoanalyticLearningSocioculturalTake a look at page 20, figure 1.3 (great study guide)
28 Biological Perspective Emphasizes the influence of biology on our behaviorRoots in associationismInterested in the influence of hormones and genes on behavior patterns, personality traits, and psychological health
29 Evolutionary Perspective Focuses on the evolution of behavior and mental processes.Charles Darwin – survival of the fittest, the most adaptive organisms have a greater chance of surviving to maturity, where they can reproduce.Believe inherited tendencies influence people to act in certain ways.
30 Cognitive Perspective Emphasizes the role that thoughts play in determining behavior.Ways in which people perceive information and make mental images of the world, solve problems, and dream.Believe that people behavior is influenced by their perceptions, values, and choices.
31 Humanistic Perspective Stresses the human capacity for self-fulfillment and the importance of consciousness, self-awareness, and the capacity to make choices.Personal experiences are the most important aspect of human psychology.Views people as basically good and desiring to be helpful to others.
32 Psychoanalytic Perspective Stresses the influence the unconscious forces on human behavior.Dominated the 1940’s and 1950’sBelieved that aggressive impulses are common reactions to the frustrations of daily life and that we seek to vent these impulses on other people.
33 Learning Perspective Emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior Learning is the essential factor in observing, describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling behavior.Repetition and reinforcementSocial-learning Theory – suggests that people can change their environments or create new ones.People can learn intentionally by observing other people.
34 Sociocultural Perspective Studies the influences of ethnicity, culture and socioeconomic status on behaviorEthnic group – group united by their cultural heritage, race, language, or common history.Also study gender and gender differences