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What is Psychology?.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Psychology?."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Psychology?

2 Outline Why Study Psychology? The Job of a Psychologist
Behavior and Mental Processes The Goals of Psychology Psychology as a Science The Job of a Psychologist Fields Within Psychology Applied Fields History of Psychology Early Views Major Players Modern Psychology Psychology Today Perspectives of Psychology Perspectives Cont’d

3 Behavior and Mental Processes
Psychology – scientific study of human behavior and mental process Behavior – any action that can be observed or measured Cognitive activities – mental processes Dreams, memories, etc. Known only to the individual Psychological constructs – used to study things we cannot see, touch, or measure

4 The Goals of Psychology
Explain behavior Struggling with work/school “Losing your cool” Predict situational outcomes When will you begin to struggle/fall apart? Control emotions, behavior, etc. How to maintain control in situations where you would have normally struggled

5 Psychology as a Science
Closely related to natural sciences Biology, chemistry, physics Still, considered a social science Research Surveys and experimentation Human or animal research Theories Statements attempting to explain why or how something occurs Discuss principles, or basic truth or law Useful theories can be applied in prediction

6 Fields Within Psychology
Clinical Most common Child/adult mental health, learning disabilities Not psychiatrists (medical doctors that can prescribe medicine) Counseling Marriage, work, relationships School Counselors in school Future goals, peer/family problems, school issues

7 Field Within Psychology Cont’d
Educational Course planning and instructional methods for an entire school system Developmental Changes throughout a person’s life span Physical, emotional, cognitive, social Personality Identification and development of human traits

8 Fields Within Psychology Cont’d
Social Behavior in social situations Romance, conforming to standards, prejudice/discrimination Experimental Experiments into basic processes of the human body Combined changes in biological and psychological events Engage in basic research, or research that has no immediate application and is done for its own sake

9 Applied Fields Industrial and Organizational Human Factors Community
Behavior of people within organizations Human Factors Best ways to design products for people to use Community Design social centers like mental institutions, hospital and school programs

10 Applied Fields Cont’d Forensic Health Rehabilitation Cross-Cultural
Work with police investigations Health How behavior is related to physical health Rehabilitation Work with patients struggling with the effects of a disability Cross-Cultural Psychological issues across varying cultures

11 Exit Slip What are the primary goals of psychology?
Select and describe one of the following fields in psychology: Clinical, Developmental, or Experimental Select and describe one of the following applied fields in psychology: Cross-Cultural, Industrial and Organizational, or Rehabilitation

12 Early Views Psychological studies date back to Egyptians
600s B.C. by Psamtik I Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle Introspection, or looking within Associationism – our understanding of the world is associated with prior experiences Middle Ages Believed many disorders to be caused by the devil Lack of scientific focus meant deadly consequences for those deemed “possessed”

13 Major Players Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) William James (1842-1910)
Structuralism – consciousness breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings Objective – portrayed outside world; Subjective – emotional responses and mental images William James ( ) Functionalism – emphasizes the purpose of behavioral and mental processes and what they can do for the individual Instead of looking for structure, wanted to know purpose

14 Major Players Cont’d Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Psychoanalysis – unconscious motives and internal conflicts as reasons behind human actions Wanted to unleash the power present in the unconscious mind Also known as psychodynamic thinking, he argued that we are constantly fighting sexual and aggressive urges deemed socially inappropriate

15 Modern Psychology John B. Watson (1878-1958) B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Behaviorism – Scientific study of observable behavior If psychology is to be a science, it must be limited to measurable events B.F. Skinner ( ) Contributed to behaviorism with concept of reinforcement Rewarding people or animals for doing the correct thing The Gestalt School Gestalt Psychology – Emphasizes the tendency to organize perception of individual parts into meaningful wholes

16 Exit Slip Define Structuralism Define Functionalism Define Behaviorism

17 Perspectives of Psychology
Biological Biology influences behavior Mental processes possible by nervous system, genes affect disorders, etc. Evolutionary People learn behaviors in order to “adapt” to society Cognitive Investigate the role of thought processes in human behavior

18 Perspectives Cont’d Humanistic Psychoanalytic
Personal experiences are the most important aspect of psychology Psychoanalytic Unconscious parts of mind shape our responses Pulls heavily from Sigmund Freud

19 Perspectives Cont’d Learning Sociocultural Biopsychosocial
Past experiences and environments impact behavior Socio-learning theory states people can change their environment AND learn from others, not just their own mistakes Sociocultural Effects of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socio-economic standing on behavior Biopsychosocial Mental actions influenced by combination of biological, psychological, and social factors

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