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Module 1: Discovering Psychology Mr. Kennedy 213.

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1 Module 1: Discovering Psychology Mr. Kennedy 213

2 Defining Psychology The systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes Behaviors- observable actions Eating, speaking, reading Mental processes Thinking, imagining, dreaming, studying

3 4 Goals of Psychology 1. Describe- the different ways an organism behaves 2. Explain- the cause of the behavior 3. Predict- how organisms will behave in certain situations 4. Control- an organisms behavior

4 Modern Approaches Biological Approach Examines how our genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with environments to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, emotions, coping techniques, and other traits and abilities.

5 Modern Approaches Biological Approach Examples EEG Cat Scan Pet Scan Physical reaction to external stimuli. Human Genome

6 Modern Approaches Cognitive Approach Focuses on how we process store and use information and how this information influences what we attend to perceive learn remember believe and feel Cognitive Neuroscience Use of EEG’s, Cat Scans, Pet Scans to view the living brain during mental tasks ch= ch= EEG equipment, PET scans and MRI machines (

7 Modern Approaches Behavioral Approach Analyze how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones, depending on whether events reward or punish these behaviors Ivan Pavlov?

8 Modern Approaches Psychoanalytic Approach Stresses the influence of unconscious fears, desires, and motivations on thoughts and behaviors. The development (first 5 years) of personality traits affected a person’s psychological problems later in life. Unconscious can cause fear and anxiety

9 Modern Approaches Humanistic Approach Emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his/her future, a large capacity for achieving personal growth, and considerable amounts of intrinsic worth and potential for self- fulfillment.

10 Modern Approaches Cross-Cultural Approaches Examines the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on psychological and social functioning of a culture’s members

11 How Did Psychology Begin? Wilhelm Wundt Father of psychology Established the 1st psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany Established the world's first experimental laboratory in psychology, the Institut fur Experimentelle Psychologie (1879) Often referred to as the "Father of Experimental Psychology" the "Founder of Modern Psychology"

12 Wilhelm Wundt Structuralism Study of the most basic elements primarily sensations & perceptions that make up our conscious mental experiences Introspection Method of exploring conscious mental processes by asking subjects to look inward and report their sensations & perceptions

13 William James Functionalism Study of the functions rather than the structures of consciousness Interested in how our minds adapt to changing environments William James Viewed mental activities as having developed through ages of evolution because of their adaptive functions Wrote 1 st Psych Textbook

14 Gestalt “whole pattern” Psychologists Emphasized that perception is more than the sum of its parts Studied how sensations are assembled into meaningful perceptual experiences Max Wertheimer

15 Gestalt “whole pattern” Psychologists

16 Behaviorism (John B. Watson) Emphasized the objective, scientific analysis of observable behaviors John B. Watson Rejected introspection as a psychological technique because its results could not be scientifically verified by other psychologists

17 Behaviorism “Give me a dozen healthy infants… I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select” (Watson, 1924)

18 Careers in Psychology Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist A psychologist is someone who has completed 4 or 5 years of postgraduate education and has obtained a Ph.D. in psychology Some states permit individuals with master’s degrees to call themselves psychologists A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (M.D.) who has spent several years in clinical training, which includes diagnosing possible physical and neurological causes of abnormal behaviors

19 Careers in Psychology



22 Areas of Specialization Social & Personality Social psychology involves the study of social interactions, stereotypes, prejudices, attitudes, conformity, group behaviors, and aggression Personality psychology involves the study of personality development, personality change, assessment, and abnormal behaviors Developmental Examines moral, social, emotional, and cognitive development throughout a person’s life span Experimental Includes areas of sensation, perception, learning, human performance, motivation, and emotion

23 Areas of Specialization Biological Involves research on the physical & chemical changes that occur during stress, learning, and emotions Cognitive Involves how we process, store, and retrieve information and how cognitive processes influence our behaviors Psychometrics Focuses on the measurement of people’s abilities, skills, intelligence, personality, and abnormal behaviors

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