Leukocytes: White Blood Cells Larger Nucleated Various shapes Fights Infection Pass through vessel
Thrombocytes: Platelets Parts of cells Clotting
All of these parts are made in the red bone marrow. Blood stem cells are located in the ends of bones. Stem cells become two different cells, one forms only one type of leukocyte, the other forms the other two leukocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes.
Plasma Maintains blood volume and blood pressure. Transports dissolved materials Originates from the fluid absorbed in large intestine.
Proteins – from liver, affect pH, blood volume, osmotic pressure, clotting. Salts – from small intestine, affect pH, metabolism, osmotic pressure. Nutrients – from small intestine, used for metabolism. Nitrogenous waste – from liver, ammonia.
Blood Gases › Oxygen – from lungs, for cell respiration › CO 2 – from cells, waste Other › Hormones – from various, for chemical communication. › Vitamins – from various, for metabolism
Formed elements (cellular) › 45% of the blood volume Serum (plasma and dissolved parts) › 55% of the blood volume
Clotting: Damage occurs › Thrombocytes form (or attempt) plug › Damaged cells release Thromboplastin › Tp causes Prothrombin Activator to be released › PA acts on Prothrombin to form Thrombin › Thrombin acts on Fibrinogen to form fibres › fibres clog cut, reinforce platelet plug › Erythrocytes stop up remaining holes in plug Leukocytes arrive to fight infection Present in blood Released into blood Made in blood
Clotting: Damage Thromboplastin Prothrombin Activator ProthrombinThrombin Fibrinogen fibres Thrombocytes Erythrocytes Present in blood Released into blood Made in blood
Antigens located on erythrocyte membranes. Antigens give us the blood type. Plasma has antibodies opposite to antigens. When antigens contact antibodies of the same type agglutination occurs. Haemolysis can also occur.
+ or – Have or not have on membrane Antibodies are made only after exposure and only to positive. mum is –, baby is +. Antibodies to + are made in mum. Haemolytic Disease of the newborn.