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Chapter 13 The Blood.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 The Blood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 The Blood

2 Introduction Specialized connective tissue Plasma: fluid part (55%)
Formed blood cells (45%) Erythrocytes Leukocytes Thrombocytes

3 Functions of the Blood

4 Functions of the Blood (cont’d.)
Transports: O2, CO2, nutrients, waste, hormones Regulates: body pH, body temperature Clotting mechanism Protection against foreign microbes and toxins Osmosis

5 The Classification of Blood Cells and the Composition of Plasma

6 The Classification of Blood Cells
Erythrocytes (RBCs) 95% of the volume of blood cells Leukocytes (WBCs) Granular: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils Agranular: monocytes, lymphocytes Thrombocytes: platelets

7 The Composition of Plasma
Fluid portion of blood is 91% water Plasma proteins: 7% Albumin, globulin, fibrinogen Plasma solutes: 2% Ions, nutrients, waste products, gases, enzymes, hormones

8 Formation of Blood Cells: Hematopoiesis

9 Formation of Blood Cells: Hematopoiesis (cont’d.)
Produced in red bone marrow Lymphocytes and monocytes produced by Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils Stem cells: undifferentiated mesenchymal cells

10 Blood Cell Anatomy and Functions

11 Blood Cell Anatomy and Functions (cont’d.)
Erythrocytes Biconcave disks No nucleus Contain hemoglobin Heme: binds O2 Globin: binds CO2

12 Blood Cell Anatomy and Functions (cont’d.)
Granular leukocytes Neutrophils Phagocytize foreign substances Eosinophils Produce antihistamines Basophils Produce heparin, histamine, serotonin

13 Blood Cell Anatomy and Functions (cont’d.)
Agranular leukocytes Monocytes Phagocytize bacteria and cellular debris Macrophages: in tissues Lymphocytes T lymphocytes B lymphocytes

14 Blood Cell Anatomy and Functions (cont’d.)
Thrombocytes or platelets Disk-shaped cellular fragments with a nucleus Prevent fluid loss when blood vessels damaged Produced from large megakaryocytes

15 The Clotting Mechanism

16 The Clotting Mechanism (cont’d.)
Ruptured blood vessel attracts Thrombocytes Damaged tissue releases Thromboplastin Thromboplastin + Ca+, ions, and proteins Prothrombin activator + Ca+  Prothrombin  Thrombin  Fibrinogen  Fibrin

17 The Clotting Mechanism (cont’d.)
Fibrin forms long threads acting like a net Platelets get enmeshed Syneresis: clot retraction Fibrinolysis: dissolution of blood clot

18 The Clotting Mechanism (cont’d.)
Thrombosis: unwanted clotting Embolus: circulating blood clot Infarction Tissues killed as a result of loss of blood supply

19 The Clotting Mechanism (cont’d.)
Needs Fig 13-5

20 Animation – Blood Click Here to Play Blood Animation

21 The Blood Groups

22 Introduction Human blood is of different types
Only certain combinations are compatible Agglutination: clumping of RBCs Occurs when blood groups mismatched Transfusion reaction

23 The ABO Blood Group Type A Type B Type AB Anti-B antibodies
Anti-A antibodies Type AB No antibodies

24 The ABO Blood Group (cont’d.)
Type O Anti-A and anti-B antibodies

25 The Rh Blood Group Eight Rh antigens Antigen D: most important
Anti-Rh antibodies develop after exposure Rh-negative mother carrying Rh-positive baby Erythroblastosis fetalis RhoGAM - protects Rh-positive fetus

26 Summary Described the functions of blood
Classified blood cells into different groups based on anatomy and function Discussed how and where blood cells are formed Explained the clotting mechanism Named the different blood groups

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