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Presentation on theme: "Blood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood

2 Functions of Blood Transports needed materials through body
Nutrients like glucose and amino acids Oxygen Transports wastes through body to where they are eliminated Carbon dioxide Metabolic wastes

3 Functions of Blood Help body defend against infection
WBC and antibodies Help protect against injury through blood clotting Carry hormones to help regulate cell activities Help regulate body temp Help maintain body pH and water balance

4 Components of Blood Fluid Cells Fragments of cells Plasma
Red Blood Cells White Blood Cells Fragments of cells Platelets

5 Components of Blood

6 Where are Blood Cells Made?
Produced in the bone marrow of ribs and long bones

7 Blood Plasma Fluid portion of blood (straw colored) About 90% water
Has many things dissolved in it Proteins, vitamins, enzymes, glucose, amino acids, cellular wastes, hormones, dissolved gases and salts Has fibrinogen which is involved in blood clotting Has antibodies which help fight infection

8 Red Blood Cells Carries oxygen from lungs to body tissues where it is released at the capillary Contain hemoglobin Iron containing protein which carries oxygen Disc shaped They do not have a nucleus and therefore have a limited life span Also called erythrocytes

9 Oxygen and Hemoglobin Oxygen Transport in the Body:

10 RBC Disorders Anemia: too few normal RBC not enough normal hemoglobin

11 RBC Disorders Sickle Cell Anemia:
Abnormal form of hemoglobin causes abnormal sickle shape RBC doesn’t carry oxygen well and tend to get stuck in capillaries causing pain

12 White Blood Cells Defend the body against disease & infection from bacteria, viruses and microbes. Help to provide immunity Only about 1% of blood Also called leucocytes Have a nucleus (unlike RBC) Often larger than RBC Produced in bone marrow and lymphatic tissue

13 White Blood Cells Macrophages:
Type of WBC that can move to affected areas to engulf antigens through phagocytosis Engulf bacterial invaders, foreign substances and cancer cells


15 During infection WBC count increases
Pus = consists partly of dead WBC

16 Leukemia: Disease of the bone marrow
Uncontrolled production of WBCs that don’t function. Considered to be a form of cancer

17 Platelets Involved in helping to form blood clots after an injury
Small bits of cytoplasm without a nucleus Smaller than a RBC and WBC Produced in bone marrow Only live about a week

18 Blood Clot Process Tear forms in blood vessel
Platelets start to stick to wound’s edges and to each other at tear site Forms a “plug” that slows the loss of blood within three to five minutes. Release enzymes that help clotting factors adhere to plug and create a fibrous “clot”

19 Clotting factors in blood reinforce platelet “plug”
Forms fibrin web that binds clot together Fibrin: protein fibers that form a sticky network web over the wound

20 Blood Clot Formation

21 Lymphatic System Lymph: portion of blood plasma that diffuses out of capillaries. Surrounds the body cells as intercellular fluid (ICF) between the cells Helps to transport dissolved material from capillaries to cells Some reenters capillaries Some collects in lymph vessels

22 Lymphatic System Lymph Nodes:
Act as filters trapping microorganisms and stray cancer cells WBC in nodes destroy unwanted cellular material Remove bacteria and dead cells from circulatory fluid Can get swollen when you are fighting an infection

23 Blood Types A, B, AB, O Inherited from alleles from parents AA, AO

24 Antigens and Blood Types
Red blood cells have specific proteins in their membranes Depending on your blood type, you have different protein “antigens” present on your blood cells

25 Antigen: a normally foreign substance that stimulates an immune response Antibodies: Produced by WBCs (lymphocytes) Recognize and attach to or “fit” specific antigens.

26 Antibody/Antigen Response
Your body will produce antibodies in response to foreign antigens This is part of the “immune response”

27 Donating Blood You cannot give blood to or receive it from just anybody. Depending on blood type you have different antibodies in your bloodstream and different antigens on RBCs The antigens and antibodies will react!! You have to receive blood of the right type or it will agglutinate.


29 Blood Type Summary

30 Type A: Type B: Type AB Type O Antigens on blood cells =
Antibodies in plasma = Donates to = Receives from = Type B: Antigens on blood cells = Antibodies in plasma = Donates to = Receives from = Type AB Antigens on blood cells = Antibodies in plasma = Donates to = Receives from = Type O Antigens on blood cells = Antibodies in plasma = Donates to = Receives from =

31 Rh Factor Rhesus Factor Another protein present on the RBC
You can have it or not Rh positive or Rh negative

32 Review Which will develop an antibody antigen reaction? Which will not? Type A person given type O Type AB person given type A Type O person given type B Type B person given type A Type A person given type AB

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