2 ObjectivesTo explain the effects of geography on cultural development in ChinaTo describe the growth and structure of the Shang DynastyTo describe Shang family structure, religion, and technologyTo summarize the rise and fall of the Zhou Dynasty
3 Map Label the following: Questions: Oceans Mountains Rivers PacificIndianMountainsHimalayasRiversIndusGangesHuang He (Yellow)YangtzeQuestions:What geographic features might have prevented trade between China and the Indus Valley?What area of China was weak to invasions? What physical features were located there?
4 Geography of ChinaLong distances and physical barriers separated it from Egypt, the Middle East, and IndiaThis isolation led to the belief that China was the center of the earth and sole source of civilization
8 Regions:China’s Heartland:Huang He (yellow)river, and the Yangziriver supportedthe largestpopulations
9 Xinjiang, Mongolia, and Manchuria Xinjiang and Mongolia are harsh and ruggedMainly nomads and subsistence farmersAt times invaders from these regions conquered ChinaGenghis Khan and the Mongols
10 River of Sorrows Chinese history starts in Huang He valley Called “yellow” river because of the loess that turns the river yellowCalled “China’s Sorrow” because of the constant flooding
11 First Dynasties Peking Man- Homo erectus skeleton discovered near Beijingon the Yellow River, settled 500,000 yrs agoMyth: 2000 B.C.E. first civilization aroseMythic ancestor of Chinese: P’an KuA leader named Yu tamed Huang He riverNo written recordsFactorganized state rose around 2000 B.C.E. with irrigation of Hwang He riverBy 1000 B.C.E.Used pottery, Rode horsesUsed Bronze, Introduced IronWriting developedScientific advancesInterest in music
12 Shang Dynasty 1532 B.C. E. Shang controlled Huang He valley Invaders?Dominated until1027 B.C.E.Decline due to InvasionCharacteristics:First to leave writtenRecordsconstructed impressive tombs and palaces
13 WritingOracle bones: animal bones or turtle shells on which priests wrote questions to ancestors or gods’by interpreting the cracks in the bone, they answers were provided
14 Written Chinese 4,000 years ago Each character represented a word or and ideaOver 10,000 charactersCalligraphy was an art formWriting was a unifying force since not everyone spoke the same language.
15 Zhou Dynasty 1027 B.C. overthrew the Shang Lasted until 256 B.C. To justify overthrowing the Shang, the Zhou promoted the idea of Mandate of Heaven, or divine right to ruleExplains the dynastic cycleFloods and famine were a sign that the dynasty was out of favor with the gods.
17 Feudal States Zhou rewarded supporters with land Feudalism: system of government in which local lords governed their own land but owed military service to rulerEventually feudalism became more powerful than the dynasty
18 Economic Growth Iron-making leads to more food production New crops and irrigation systemsCommerce expanded, use of moneyNew roads and canalsLed to increase in population
19 Warring States Period771 B.C.E. – nomads sacked the Zhou capital of Hao and murdered the monarchA few family members escaped and ruled from new capital for 500 yearsPowerless, couldn’t control noble familiesWarlords claimed to be “kings” of territoryLed to “warring states” periodWarring StatesWarfare changed, no longer honorablePeasants main force on battlefieldNew weapons such as a crossbowCentral values changedNo longer order, harmony, and respect for authority…. Now chaos, arrogance and defiance