Presentation on theme: "Classical India Geography 1.Isolated from rest of Asia by Hindu Kush, Karakorum, and Himalayan mountain ranges 2.Dependent on Ganges and Indus Rivers for."— Presentation transcript:
Classical India Geography 1.Isolated from rest of Asia by Hindu Kush, Karakorum, and Himalayan mountain ranges 2.Dependent on Ganges and Indus Rivers for traveling, and agriculture 3.Monsoons bring rain waters into India from the Arabian Sea
Environmental Challenges 1.Floods (unpredictable unlike Mesopotamia and Egypt) 2.Rivers changed direction 3.Cycles of wet and dry seasons due to summer wind (monsoons)
Civilization Arrives Much larger than Mesopotamia or Egypt, yet no written records Not exactly sure when people arrived or where from Cities were uniformly designed, indicating a strong central government Well designed city (walls against invasion and flooding, had a temple, and even had sewage pits in the street to improve sanitation)
Harappan (Indian) Culture Developed a written language but isn’t translated (400 symbols) Found children’s toys (nonessentials) No weapons found (limited conflict) Animals were important in their culture Likely were Hindu Trade was HUGE along the Indus (across Persian Gulf to Mes. to trade copper, precious stones, and luxury goods). Had gold and silver from Afghanistan also.
Indus River Valley Ends Around 1750, the civilization declines Plate tectonics shifted (rivers dried, buildings collapsed due to earthquakes and flooding) Cities died out due to decreased trading (Sarswati River dries up) and people were forced to move
River Dynasties in China Only river civilization to still thrive today Geography 1.Dependent on Huang He (North), the Chang Jiang and Yangtze (Central). Both flood and bring silt Environmental Challenges 1.“China’s Sorrow” (floods devour whole villages) 2.Limited trading due to isolation 3.Bad natural borders allowed invasion from outsiders
Civilization emerges in China Peking Man (Beijing) suggest homo erectus arrived 500,000 years ago Dynasties 1.Xia- led by engineer and math whiz Yu (2000 BC). He irrigated China, and is a legend in China still 2.Shang- (1700-1000 BC) first Chinese family to leave written records. They built palaces and tombs.
City Life Anyang- built mainly of wood, standing in a forest clearing Cities surrounded by walls Created the chariot (conflict)
Chinese Culture Were egocentric (Middle Kingdom), with loyalty to family and the Kingdom Family was CENTRAL in this society (women are inferior)---arranged marriages! Obey all males (even sons) Society divided between nobles (warriors) and peasants. (Illiterate vs. Literate) Worshiped Shang Di and lesser gods through father’s ancestors. They communicated through oracle bones.
Chinese Culture (cont.) Writing characters represented one syllable No link between written and spoken language Written language unified China because all villages wrote the same even if they spoke differently Difficult to remember because of the number of characters (1500 was barely literate)
Dynastic Cycle Zhou overthrow the Shang and take over “Mandate of Heaven”- Zhou were divinely justified in overthrowing the Shang Floods, riots, and other calamities were “signs” from the gods Control through feudalism- members of royal family rule over vast areas of land. Lords eventually accept their own rule as legitimate
Innovations in Trade and Technology Roads and canals Coined money Furnaces Period of Warring States 1.Zhou- 1027-256 BC; in 771 BC a group of nomads murdered the monarch. Independent lords take over their pieces of land, and nobles keep theirs.