Geography made Europe difficult to unite. Today, it is the second smallest continent but has 50 countries. Its division can be traced back to the many tribes in the Dark Ages.
The “Dark Ages” Historians call the period following the fall of Rome the “Dark Ages.” This period is known as the beginning of the “Middle Ages” (the time between the fall of Rome and the Renaissance).
The fall of Rome brought many important changes to Western Europe.
Warfare increased. Trade decreased. The “Dark Ages” began.
Effects of the Fall of Rome Germanic tribes took over Roman lands. Hundreds of little kingdoms took the place of the Western Roman Empire in Europe. Kingdoms were always at war with one another. People lost interest in learning.
Barbarian invasions cause the fall of the Western Roman Empire, leaving Europe in chaos. No central leadership led to a rise of new kingdoms/ states that are not united. New kingdoms are unable to protect themselve s from barbarians causing a need for localized protection. The rise of feudalism in Europe. The Rise of Feudalism in Medieval Europe ( 500 CE -1500 CE.)
Clovis was an important king of the Franks. The Franks were one of the largest Germanic tribes.
Clovis and the Franks In A.D. 481, Clovis united the Franks and became their king. Clovis converted to the Roman Catholic faith. Essentially, the Franks blended Germanic and Roman cultural practices.
Charlemagne became king of the Franks in 768 A.D. He conquered a vast empire and tried to recreate the glory of the Roman Empire.
Charlemagne Charlemagne was first crowned king of the Franks. Later, in 800 CE he was crowned by the POPE Leo III as the Holy Roman Emperor. This enraged the people of the Eastern Byzantine Empire because their ruler was not selected! The Church and Charlemagne depended on each other: The Pope needed the support of his army to protect the church. Charlemagne gained support from his people because he was viewed as having “God on his side”.
Charlemagne Continued Through wars of conquest he united differing European tribes. He showed the tribes of Europe that they have similar values under Christianity.
Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne “Holy Roman Emperor.”
Charlemagne's Achievements Government: Officials called missi dominici were sent to check on nobles and ensure justice. Learning: Wanted his capital at Aachen to be “a second Rome.” Created a curriculum, or formal course of study. Extended Christianity into Northern Europe. Blended German, Roman, and Christian traditions.
Effects of Charlemagne While Charlemagne’s descendants were not able to recreate the glory of the Roman Empire, the Franks did have effects: 1. Christianity continued to spread. 2. His government was an example for later monarchs. 3.The Frankish practice of giving land to nobles in exchange for loyalty and military service spread throughout Western Europe.
William The Conqueror A French duke who defeated the English king at the Battle of Hastings. After winning the battle he declared himself king of England. William rewarded the knights that helped him win the battle by giving them land. This event marked the beginning of the feudal system in England.
Feudalism- (Fyoo-duh-lih-zuhm) A system of PROTECTION in the Middle Ages. Vassal- An oath of loyalty between knights and lords that stated they would protect the land. A knight is a vassal (loyal subject) for his lord and a lord is a vassal for a king. Key words Essential to Feudalism
Feudalism Life during the Middle Ages was based on a series of exchanges. Lesser Lords obeyed more powerful Lords in exchange for land. They also gave the more powerful lords military service. Peasants, known as serfs, gave their lords a portion of crops in return for protection.
Feudal Europe Power Pyramid The Pope King Lords/Nobles Knights Peasants/serfs
Protection from who? 1.The Vikings invaded from Scandinavia- Expert sailors. They were quick and savage. They attacked Ireland, England and France. They looted and captured people to sell into slavery. Most Europeans lived in terror of them. 2.The Magyars attacked from Asia. 3.The Muslims attacked (from South).
Bodium Castle Caernarfon Castle More Advanced Castled Designs
Youtube Link The Castle by David Macaulay http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGbPSh Upjpg&list=PLA9C3672CED7D4327http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGbPSh Upjpg&list=PLA9C3672CED7D4327 Play from about 14 minutes to 17.
History of the Middle Ages Show through high middle ages until the black death. http://172.26.64.6/SAFARI/montage/play.p hp?keyindex=2834http://172.26.64.6/SAFARI/montage/play.p hp?keyindex=2834
Questions for Review: Why did historians call the early Middle Ages the “Dark Ages”? Who was Clovis and how did his conversion affect the Franks? How is feudalism different from other political systems?