2 Lesson 1 ObjectivesBe able to explain the significance of rulers such as Charlemagne and Charles Martel.Be able to explain the decline in central authority and rise of Feudalism following Charlemagne.
3 1. Merovingian Kings: a Dynasty of early rulers of the Franks. Lesson 1 Terms1. Merovingian Kings: a Dynasty of early rulers of the Franks.2. Clovis – King of the Franks, who in 481 A.D. converted to Christianity.
4 Lesson 1 Terms3. Charles Martel—defeated Islamic forces at the Battle of Tours, ensuring that Europe would be Christian.4. Charlemagne – The greatest king of the Franks and the leader who provided the foundations for a modern European culture.
5 I. Merovingian RulersDuring the 400’s A.D., the Franks emerged as the strongest Germanic group; their early rulers, known as Merovingian kings, held power until the early 700’s.The real impact of the Franks upon Western Europe dates from 481 A. D. when Clovis took the throne and converted to Christianity.
6 I. Merovingian RulersClovis converted believing that the Christian God had helped him win a battle against the Alemanni.When Clovis converted, his subjects, subsequently converted. Wars, common enough in these early times, became Holy Wars – wars to preserve the Christian faith against Heretics – and the Franks considered themselves “protectors of the faith.”
7 I. Merovingian RulersIn large measure, this explains the “christianization” of Western Europe.
8 I. Merovingian RulersIn 714 A.D., Charles Martel led the successful defense of Tours, France, against Muslim forces; this victory ensured that Christianity would remain dominant in Europe.Charles Martel’s son Pepin the Short became the king of the Franks in 752 A.D. In return for the Church’s blessing, Pepin was expected to help the pope against his enemies.
10 II. Charlemagne’s Empire (Ruler from 771 A.D. – 814 A.D.) In 768 A.D., Pepin’s son Charlemagne became the Frankish king; Charlemagne nearly doubled the borders of his kingdom, which became known as the Frankish Empire.Charlemagne’s empire represents the first “European” civilization – the characteristic most often associated with Charlemagne — stability.
11 II. Charlemagne’s Empire This stability was based on the bridging of three elements into one peaceful empire:1. The Roman Past2. The Germanic way of life3. Christianity
12 II. Charlemagne’s Empire When Charlemagne took power in 771 A.D., he immediately established two priorities:Expansion(map pg. 296). Unite all Germanics under one kingdom.2. Convert all of the people in the land he conquered to Christianity.
13 II. Charlemagne’s Empire If somebody gave you a very large gift…house, car, etc, would you be loyal to them?Charlemagne began giving his warriors land so they could support and equip themselves. This created an army of warriors who were deeply devoted and loyal to Charlemagne.
14 II. Charlemagne’s Empire Charlemagne was a tough act to follow. When Charlemagne died in 814 A.D., his family could not hold the empire together; in 843 A.D. Charlemagne’s three grandsons agreed to divide the empire’s lands.What effects can a divided empire bring?
16 III. Invasions Increase Disunity Outside invasions nearly destroyed the Carolingian kingdoms; the most threatening attacks came from the Vikings, raiders from Scandinavia to the north.The Vikings were explorers, skilled in sailing and trading, who settled throughout Europe
17 III. Invasions Increase Disunity The Viking raids isolated communities, severely weakened monarch’ central authority, and adversely affected trade.Their attacks, however, would cease beginning in the 900’s A.D., because the tribes converted to Christianity, and a new political and social system, Feudalism, brought more stability to Western Europe.