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Civilizations of the Americas (1400 B.C.-A.D. 1570)

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Presentation on theme: "Civilizations of the Americas (1400 B.C.-A.D. 1570)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Civilizations of the Americas (1400 B.C.-A.D. 1570)

2 Early American Civilizations
First American civilization were the Olmecs Lived in the tropical forest along the Gulf Coast in Mexico Lasted from about 1400 B.C to 500 B.C.

3 Civilizations of Middle America
First settlers in America were nomadic hunters Probably came over on a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska Populated two fast continents From 8500 B.C. to 2000 B.C. Neolithic people began to farm crops in Mexico

4 The Mayans Mayan farmers cleared rain forests for farming to feed their cities Their society was divided into social classes Each city had its own chief Priests were highly regarded Pyramid temples and palaces served as burial places and altars They developed a single ruler or emperor at the top. Conquered people commonly served as sacrifices

5 The Mayas cont. As a result of the human sacrifices the people who conquered people often revolted When the Spanish army arrived they found allies who were ruled by the Aztecs

6 The World of the Incas For more than 2000 years civilizations rose and fell in Mexico In the 1400s the Incas came from the mountains of Peru They were led by Pachacuti They quickly conquered an empire that stretched miles down the Andes and along the Pacific coast. By the 1500s they had established a centralized government in Peru They were ruled by a god-king and a powerful class of priests

7 Incan Government The emperor had the absolute power over the Incan empire He claimed to be divine and lived in splendor He ruled from the capital at Cuzco His chain of command reached every village Specially trained officials kept records on quipus, collections of knotted strings

8 Incan Achievements They worked to unite their conquered people
They imposed their own language Quechua and religion on the people They also created one of great road systems in history Roads wound more than miles through mountains and deserts Fighting in the 1500s crippled them shortly before the Spanish came to Mexico

9 Peoples of North America
Before 1500 there were many groups of Native Americans with many different kind of lifestyles in that lived in North America Culture groups included peoples in the Artic, Northwest Coast, California, Great Basin, Southwest, Great Plains, Southeast, and Eastern Woodlands

10 The Anasazi Are the best known society of the desert southwest
Built large villages called pueblos by the Spanish Were made of stone and adobe brick There was a kiva a large underground chamber used for religious rituals in the middle of the village In the 1100’s they began building housing complexes in the shadow of canyon walls Reason was it provided better protection from raiders Their traditions live on by the ways of the Hopi and Pueblo Indians

11 The Mound Builders They lived by the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys The Hopewell people (a.k.a the Mound Builders) left behind mounds of earth in many different forms The objects found in the mounds suggest that networks stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes By about 800 A.D. the culture had been replaced by that of the Mississippians who grew corn and other crops

12 Mound Builders cont. They built large towns and ceremonial centers
Their greatest center Cahokia in present day Illinois that could house as many as 40,000 people by 1200A.D. Different climates influenced the way other tribes lived such as Intuits adapted to the frozen terrain in the far north

13 Review Questions What was the first civilization in the Americas, it was in the Tropical Forests of Mexico? The Olmecs Nomadic hunters came to North America across what? A land bridge between Siberia and Alaska What civilization grew up in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, used flat top pyramids, and had an accurate calendar? Tourists still visit the pyramids built by this civilization. The Mayans What warrior tribe had conquered the valley of Mexico by the 1500s, and built its capital where Mexico City is located today? The Aztecs What is the name of the capital city that Mexico City sits on? Tenochtitlan What Spanish Conquistador killed Montezuma and conquered the above civilization? Hernandez Cortez What is a Tribute? A payment from conquered peoples What civilization grew up in the Andes Mountains of South America? What was the capital city of the above civilization in South America? Cuzco What Spanish Conquistador defeated the civilization in South America? Francisco Pizarro

14 Bibliography V9D3HIL8kFg/T2F_GNyOwdI/AAAAAAAAABE/sEQMC7iYaRM/s1600/The+inca+city+of+Machu+Picchu

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